Action ► Spasmolytic, antiasthmatic, anticholinergic, cerebral depressant, nerve-sedative. Controls spasms of bronchioles in asthma. Anticholinergic. Effects of overdose are similar to those of atropine. Temporary relief from Parkinsonian tremor recorded. (Contraindicated with depressant drugs.) Applied locally, stramonium palliates the pain of muscular rheumatism, neuralgia, also pain due to haemorrhoids, fistula, abscesses and similar inflammations. Prevents motion sickness.
Key application ► In diseases of the autonomic nervous system. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.) The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported antispasmodic action of the leaf; Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia accepted it as expectorant and antispasmodic.
Whole plant contains 0.26% alkaloids (seeds 0.98% and stem 0.08%); also flavonoids, withanolides, cou-marins and tannins; the major alkaloid is hyoscyamine (44-67%), hyoscine (13.2-25.3%) and atropine (0.01-0.1%). The tropane alkaloids are similar to those found in Atropa belladonna.
Hyoscine is five times as active as atropine in producing mydriasis, but its main use is as antimotion sickness drug; and in combination as a sedative.
Toxic constituents include anti-cholinergic alkaloids.
Dosage ► Leaf—60-185 mg powder; seed—60-120 mg powder (CCRAS.)
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