Tylophora indica

Family ► Asclepiadaceae.

Family ► Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat ► Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Peninsular India.

English ► Emetic Swallow Wort, Indian or Country Ipecacuanha.

Ayurvedic ► Antamuula, Muulini, Arkaparni.

Siddha/Tamil ► Nay Palai, Nangilaip-piratti.

Action ► Leaves—used for bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyl-tylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaem-pferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, d-septicine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpe-noids alpha-and beta-amyrin; beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campes-terol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.

680 Tylophora tenuis Blume

The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyax-enic strains of Entamoeba histolyti-ca. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14-hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochlo-ride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans.

Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties.

Desmethyltylophorine gave promising results in leukaemia.

The drug irritates the digestive tract.

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