Symplocos racemosa Roxb

Synonym ► S. beddomei C. B. Clarke S. candolleana Brand.

Family ► Symplocaceae.

Habitat ► Throughout North and eastern India, extending southwards to Peninsular India.

English ► Lodh tree, Sapphire Berry.

Ayurvedic ► Lodhra, Rodhra, Shaavara., Sthulavalkal, Trita, Pattikaa Lodhra, Shaabara Lodhra.

Unani ► Lodh Pathaani.

Siddha/Tamil ► Vellilethi, Velli-lothram.

Action ► Bark—used as specific remedy for uterine complaints, vaginal diseases and menstrual disorders; menorrhagia, leucorrhoea (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India); also used in diarrhoea, dysentery, vaginal ulcers, inflammatory affections and liver disorders.

The bark gave colloturine, harman (loturine) and loturidine. Stem bark gave proanthocyanidin-3-monogluco-furanosides of 7-O-methyl-and 4'-O-methyl-leucopelargonidin. Betulinic, oleanolic, acetyl oleanolic and ellagic acids are reported from the plant.

Glycosides, isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark, are highly astringent and are reported to be responsible for the medicinal properties of the bark.

The bark extracts have been reported to reduce the frequency and intensity of the contractions in vitro of both pregnant and non-pregnant uteri of animals. A fraction from the bark, besides showing action on uteri, was spasmogenic on various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and could be antagonized by atropine.

The bark extracts were found to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus, and enteric and dysenteric groups of organisms.

Dosage ► Stem bark—3-5 g powder; 20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.)

S. laurina Wall., synonym S. spica-ta Roxb. (North and East Idia, Western and Eastern Ghats); S. ramosis-sima Wall. (the temperate Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan); S. sumuntia Buch.-Ham. (Nepal to Bhutan) are also equated with Lodhra.

636 Syringa vulgaris Linn.

The powdered bark is used in folk medicine for biliousness, haemorrhages, diarrhoea, dysentery and genitourinary diseases.

Symplocos theaefolia Buch-Ham. ex D. Don (the Eastern Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan and in the Khasi Hills at altitudes between 1,200 and 2,500 m) is known as Kharanl in Nepal and Dieng-pei or Dieng-twe-pe in khasi.

The ethanolic extract of leaves showed hypoglycaemic activity in rats and anticancer activity against Friend-virus-leukaemia (solid) in mice. The extract of the leaves and of stems showed activity against human epider-moid carcinoma of the nasopharynx in tissue-culture.

The Wealth of India equated S. laurina with Lodh Bholica (Bengal) and S. sumuntia with Pathaani Lodh.

The wood of Symplocos phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke is known as Chandan and Laal-chandan. It should not be confused with Santalum album or Ptero-carpus santalinus.

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