Siddha Tamil Vemmu Veppu Veppan Arulundi

Action ► Leaf, bark—antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecti-cidal, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-malarial, antiperiodic, mosquito larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, spermicidal, hypogly-caemic; used in inflammation of gums, gingivitis, periodonitis, sores, boils, enlargement of spleen, malarial fever, fever during childbirth, measles, smallpox, head scald and cutaneous affections. Oil—used

76 Azima tetracantha Lam.

as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, for the treatment of vaginal infections, and as a mosquito repellent.

Plant tetranortriterpenoids have been examined extensively for their antibiotic, antitumour, insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal activities.

The methanolic extract of the bark shows antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.

The aqueous extract of leaves exhibited antiulcer and anti-inflammatory activity

The water-soluble portion of alcoholic extract of leaves reduces blood sugar in glucose-fed and adrenaline-induced hyperglycaemic rats (but not in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats).

A volatile fraction of the Neem oil is reported to be responsible for sper-micidal activity at a dose of 25 mg/ml for human sperm. The oil has been found to retard the growth of human immunodeficiency virus.

Neem oil has caused mitochondri-al injury in mice; poisonous in high doses. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Dosage ► Dried leaf—1-3 g powder; 10-20 g for decoction; stembark— 2-4 g powder decoction for external use. (API Vol. II.) Leaf juice— 10-20 ml; oil—5-10 drops; bark decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)

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