Action ► The plant is used against bronchial asthma (especially flowers with black pepper). Leaves—used for treating chronic cases of
dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation and mucus in stool. Seed oil— geriatric and tonic. Leaves, flowers and root-bark oil—antimicrobial (maximum activity in leaves). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the root and leaf in asthma and dyspnoea; stem bark in diseases of the spleen.
Root bark contains benzoylline-olone and benzolisolineolone. Root, stem and leaves, also latex contain beta-amyrin. Flowers contain evanidin 3-rhamnoglucoside. The plant contains a cardenolide, proceragenin, an antibacterial principle.
The latex is given for treating epilepsy, also in painful, joints and swellings. The latex exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-and formalin-induced rat paw oedema model.
The herb can alter menstrual cycle and temporarily inhibit ovulation. Cardiac glycosides may be additive when combined with Digoxin. (Sharon M. Herr.)
Dosage ► Leaf—250-750 mg powder; root—1-3 g for decoction (API Vol. I); stem bark—0.5-1 g powder (API Vol. III). Milky juice—500 mg to 1 g (CCRAS.)
Action ► Anti-inflammatory. Root— hypocholesterolaemic. Poisonous to human beings in mature stages.
The flowers contain flavonoids, 7-rhamnosides, 3-glucosides and 3-glu-co-7-rhamnosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Roots gave triterpenoid glycosides, which decreased serum cholesterol and total protein and increased blood sugar equivalent to bu-tadione in rats.
EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibits CNS depressant and hypotensive activity in rat.
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