Siddha Tamil Shimai chamantipu

Action ► Mild sedative, anticon-vulsant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, mild analgesic; used externally for skin disorders, poultice of flowers in sprains and rheumatism.

Key application ► Used mainly in France for mild spasmodic gastrointestinal disturbances and sluggishness of bowels, also for nervousness. (PDR.) (German Chamomile has been included by German Commission E among approved herbs, whereas Roman

Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. 55

chamomile remains unapproved due to lack of clinical evidence.) The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes antispasmodic activity of Anthemis nobilis.

The flower heads contain volatile oil (including azulenes and bisabolol); sesquiterpene lactone (nobilin); flavo-noids, cyanogenic glycoside, bitter glu-coside (anthemic acid); acetylenic salicylic derivatives, coumarins (including scopolin), valerianic acid; tannins.

Azulenes and bisabolol are anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic, reducing histamine-induced reactions, including hay fever and asthma. Flavo-noids, especially anthemidin, are also antispasmodic. Valerianic acid and cyanogenic glycosides are sedative.

Flowers and root—abortifacient. Leaves—astringent. A decoction is used for gargling in stomatitis and aphthae.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried stembark in disorders of female genital tract and bleeding disorders.

The dried bark contains alkaloids, steroids, reducing sugars and also tannins (4.61%). The ether-soluble alkaloid of the bark shows antibacterial activity.

Dosage ► Stembark—0.5-1.5 g powder. (API Vol. II.)

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