Siddha Tamil Pappaali Pappayi

Action ► Ripe fruit—stomachic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, galactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Seeds— emmengagogue, abortifacient, vermifuge. Juice of seeds is administered in enlarged liver and spleen, and in bleeding piles.

Key application ► Papain, the enzyme mixture extracted from raw papain (latex of Carica papaya), has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Experiment-based as well as clinical research indicate that papain may be effective (in the treatment of inflammations) in high doses (daily dose 1500 mg corresponding to 2520 FIP units).

Unripe fruit—emmengagogue and abortifacient. Latex—applied topically on eczema, ringworm, psoriasis, corns, warts, sloughing wounds, carbuncles and eschar of burns.

Green parts of the plant and seed contain an alkaloid carpaine. Seeds also contain carpasemine.

Latex contain enzymes—papain and chymopapain and alkaloids carpaine and pseudocarpaine. A proteinaceous material from latex showed anticoagulant activity; in higher doses it is heart depressant and as a spasmogen on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum. An alkaloid solution showed depressant action on heart, blood pressure and intestine.

The anthelmintic action of seeds against Ascaris lumbricoides is due to carpasemine.

Papain, an enzyme mixture prepared from the fruit, seeds and leaf, hydrolyses polypeptides, amides and esters, particularly when used in an alkaline environment, and is used in digestive disorders.

Papain inhibits platelet aggregation, which may further increase the risk of bleeding in patients also taking anticoagulants. Concurrent administration of cyclophosphamide with papain caused sever damage to lung tissues in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Chymopapin C is an immunosup-pressive enzyme from plant extract. Carpaine, extracted from the plant,

Carthamus tinctorius Linn. 123

exhibited anti-tubercular activity, also antitumour in vitro, and hypotensive.

Dosage ► Leaf—40-80 ml infusion; latex—3-6 g (CCRAS.)

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