Siddha Tamil Mallikanarangi

Action ► Peel—laxative, feeble stomachic, emmenagogue. Leaves— prescribed in the treatment of arthritis and bronchitis. Flowers— aqueous extract is employed in scurvy, fever, inflammation, nervous and hysterical cases. Fruit— a decoction is used to recover from cachexia left by intermittent fever and in cases of enlarged spleen. Dried rind—used in atonic dyspepsia.

Key application ► Cut peel—in loss of appetite and dyspeptic ailments. (German Commission E.). As a bitter tonic. (British Pharmacopoeia.)

The main constituents of the peel include the alkaloid synephrine and N-methyltyramine. Synephrine, an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, stimulates a rise in blood pressure through vasoconstriction. N-methyltyramine also raises blood pressure.

The root gave xanthyletin. The essential oil exhibits antifungal activity, it was found effective in treatment-resistant fungal skin diseases. (Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

Commercially available Citrus vul-garis (bitter orange) extracts are often promoted for weight loss due to purported thermogenic effects. In animal models, synephrine causes weight loss, but also increases cardiovascular toxic-ity. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

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