Family ► Gramineae; Poaceae.
Habitat ► Cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
English ► Italian Millet, Fox-tail Millet.
Ayurvedic ► Kangu, Kanguni, Kangunikaa, Priyangu Dhaanya (Millet). (Priyangu, aromatic flower buds or seed kernels, is a different drug. Callicarpa macrophylla and Prunus mahaleb are equated with Priyangu.)
Family ► Dipterocarpaceae.
Habitat ► North, east and central India.
English ► Sal tree. Oleoresin: Sal Dammer or Bengal Dammer.
Ayurvedic ► Shaala, Saalasaara, Dhuupa-vriksha. (Substitute: Vateria indica.)
Siddha/Tamil ► Kungiliyam, Venkungiliyam (resin).
Action ► Fruit—a paste is prescribed in diarrhoea. Resin—astringent, detergent; antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric. Essential oil of Sal resin—antiseptic. Used for skin diseases.
The bark contains 7-12, young leaves 20, twigs and leaves 22, and powder dust 12% tannin. The spray-dried aqueous extract of the bark contains 39.6% of tannins with a trans/non-trans ratio of 0.73. The tannins are of pyrogal-lol type. Oleanolic acid has also been isolated from the bark.
Several triterpenoids have been isolated from the resin. Hydroxy-hopano-ne, dammarenediol II (20S) and dam-marenolic acid are reported to exhibit antiviral activity against Herpes simplex. The resin on dry distillation yields an essential oil, known as Chuaa Oil. It consists of 96.0% neutral and 3.0 and 1.9% phenolic and acidic fractions respectively. Non-phenolic portion of the oil is reported to have a depressing effect on the central nervous system, the phenolic portion is less effective.
Dosage ► Heartwood, flower—3-5 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction; resin—1-3 g. (CCRAS.)
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