Salvia officinalis Linn

Family ► Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat ► Native to the Mediterranean region; grown as an ornamental.

Folk ► Salvia Sefakuss.

Action ► Plant—astringent, anti-inflammatory, carminative, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic. Leaf and flower—cholagogue, hypogly-caemic, antiasthmatic (used for respiratory allergy), cholagogue, emmenagogue, antisudoriferous, antiseptic. Leaf—diaphoretic, antipyretic. Used for sore throat, laryngitis, tonsillitis, stomatitis.

Key application ► Leaf—internally, for dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration; externally for inflammations of the mucous membranes of nose and throat. (German Commission E.) ESCOP indicates its use for inflammations and infections such as stomatitis, gingivitis, pharyngitis, and hyperhidrosis.

The leaves contain a volatile oil; diterpene bitters including carnosolic acid; flavonoids including salvigenin, genkwanin, hispidulin, luteolin and its derivatives; phenolic acids including rosmarinic, caffeic, labiatic; a condensed catechin, salvia tannin.

The roots contain diterpene quino-nesroyleanone and its derivatives. Volatile oil contains alpha-and beta-thu-jone, 1,8-cineole and camphor. Thu-jone is strongly antiseptic and carminative, also has an oestrogenic action that is partly responsible for the herb's hormonal activity in reducing breast milk production. The volatile oil also relieves muscle spasms. Ros-marinic acid, a phenol, allays inflammations.

Cirsiliol, linalool and alpha-terpine-ol, constituents of the volatile oil, exhibit CNS depressant activities.

In a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled trial, extracts of Salvia officinalis showed improvement in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Sage oil is used in perfumes as a deodorant and for the treatment of thrush and gingivitis. The herb is used in tooth powders, mouth washes, gargles,

Sambucus ebulus Linn. 577

poultices, hair tonics and hair dressings.

Family ► Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat ► Throughout the plains of India, up to 1,500 m in the hills.

Ayurvedic ► Samudrashosha, Kammarkasa.

Action ► Plant—diuretic, an-thelmintic, astringent, demulcent. Leaves—used for toothache. Seeds—mucilaginous, used for diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and haemorrhoids.

The plant contains flavones—nepe-tin and hispidulin and their gluco-sides. Flowers also contain nepetin. Sitosterol and oleanolic acid are also present. The seeds yield secoisolari-ciresinol diester.

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