Rosa damascena Mill

Family ► Rosaceae.

Habitat ► Cultivated chiefly in Aligarh, Ghazipur and Kannauj, grown in gardens throughout India.

English ► Damask Rose.

Ayurvedic ► Taruni. (Flowers—red, pink or white.)

Unani ► Gul-e-Surkh, Vard, Vard-e-Ahmar. Stamens—Zard-e-Vard. Fruit—Dalik, Samar-ul-Vard, Smar-e-Gul.

Action ► Flower buds—astringent, expectorant, laxative; used as a cardiac tonic and aperient. Stamens and fruits—astringent. Petals—Gulkand (a confection in sugar)—laxative, anti-inflammatory (used in sore throat and tonsilitis. Rose water—cooling, refrigerant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory (used as a remedy for skin irritation, also for sore eyes).

All parts of the rose plant yielded quercetin, kaempferol and cyanidin. Lycopene, rubixanthin, zeaxanthin, xanthophyll and taraxanthin have been isolated from the hips. The flowers contain an essential oil with citronel-lol, nerol, geraniol, beta-phenylethanol and its glucoside, eugenol and methyl eugenol; other constituents include organic acids, chlorogenic acid, tannin, cyanin, cyanidin and its 3,5-di-glucoside, quercitrin, carotene and sugars. Pollen from flowers contain carotene (0.76 mg/100 g), sugars (1.0%) and chlorogenic acid (1.5%). Their proline content is found unusually high.

The red colouring matter consists of cyanin (9-10% on dry weight basis); a yellow glucoside of quercetin and quercitrin is also present. Flowers, usually, yield 0.04% oil or otto of rose.

Dog Rose, extensively cultivated in Europe, North Africa and parts of Asia, is equated with Rosa canina Lin. The rose hip contains vitamin C (0.22.0%), malic and citric acid, pectins (15%), invert sugar (12-15%), tannins (2%), carotenoids, flavonoids.

Preparations of Rose hips are used for the prevention and treatment of colds and influenza-type infections, for the treatment vitamin C deficiencies; and for increasing resistance.

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