Radermachera xylocarpa

Synonym ► Bignonia xylocarpa Roxb. Stereospermum xylocarpum (Roxb.) Wt.

Family ► Bignoniaceae.

Habitat ► Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.

Siddha/Tamil ► Vedanguruni, Pathiri.

Folk ► Paadiri. Kharsing, Kadashing, Bairsinge (Maharashtra).

Action ► Plant—antiseptic. Resin— used for the treatment of skin diseases. Rootbark—bitter, astringent; used as substitute for Stereospermumpersonatum (Hassk.) D. Chatterjee and S. suaveolens DC. (Trumpet-Flower, Yellow Snake tree, also known as Padri).

The leaves gave flavonoids, dinatin and its glycoside. Roots yielded O-acetyl oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and a red pigment, radermachol.

Synonym ► R. spinosa Poir. R. brandisii Gamble. R. longispina W. & A. R. tomentosa W. & A. non Blume. Xeromphis spinosa Keay.

Habitat ► Assam, Naga and Khasi Hills, Travancore and the Andamans.

English ► Common Emetic Nut.

Ayurvedic ► Madana, Chhardana, Pindi, Shalayaka, Vishapushpaka.

Siddha/Tamil ► Marukkaaraikai, Madkarai.

Action ► Fruit—nervine, calmative, antispasmodic, emetic, anthelmintic, abortifacient. Used as a substitute for ipecacuanha.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn-dia recommends the dried fruit in chlorosis, common cold, rhinitis and obstinate skin diseases.

The activity of the drug is attributed to the presence of saponins which occur to the extent of 2-3% in fresh fruits and about 10% in dried whole fruit. The saponins are concentrated mostly in the pulp. A mixture of two saponins, viz. randialic or neutral saponin and randialic acid or acid saponin has been isolated from the pulp. On complete hydrolysis both the saponins yield oleanolic acid as sapogenin. Ursosaponin, isolated from the ethanolic extract of the dried whole fruit, gave ursolic acid and glucose. Randianin, isolated from the fruit, gave a haemolytic triterpe-noid saponin.

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