Quercus ilex Linn.
Synonym ► Samadera indica Gaertn. S. indica var. lucida Blatter. S. lucida Wall.
Family ► Simaroubaceae.
Habitat ► West Coast, along back waters and evergreen forests from Maharashtra southwards to Trivandrum.
English ► Niepa Bark tree.
Siddha/Tamil ► Nibam, Niepa, Karinjottei.
Folk ► Lokhandi (Maharashtra).
Action ► Bark—febrifuge; juice applied to skin diseases. An infusion of wood and bark is given as emmenagogue. Seed— emetic, purgative; used for bilious fevers. Seed oil—applied in rheumatism. Leaves— externally in erysipelas.
The bark contains the quassinoids, indaquassin, A, D, E and F; samader-ine B to E, dihydrosamaderine B, brucein D, soulameolide, cedronin and canthin-2, 6-dione.
Brucin D showed activity against Walker's carcinoma. Samaderine E, isolated from the plant, exhibits anti-leukaemic activity.
Family ► Fagaceae.
Habitat ► The Himalayas, from the Sutlej valley westwards and in Kashmir at altitudes of 9002,600 m.
English ► Holly or Holm Oak.
Action ► Leaves—antioxidant. Galls—contain 41% tannin. The bark contains 7-13%; leaves 2.1% tannin and 1.8% non-tannin.
The leaves contain alpha-tocopherol as main antioxidant. The mature leaves contain proanthocyanidins 3.3, and leucoanthocyanidins 3.4 mg/g (on dry matter basis).
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