Picea smithiana Boiss

Synonym ► P. morinda Link. Abies smithiana Lindl.

Family ► Pinaceae.

Habitat ► The Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at altitudes of 1,500-3,500 m.

English ► West Himalayan Spruce.

Folk ► Roi, Rhai, Raghaa, Kathela, Kandre, Morindaa. Spruce (trade).

Action ► Essential oil—antiseptic. Used in bath salts, room sprays and deodorants.

Key applications ► Fir Needle Oil, obtained from Picea abies, synonym P. excelsa)—externally and internally, for catarrhal illness of the upper and lower respiratory tract; externally, for rheumatic and neuralgic pains. (German Commission E.)

The oil contains alpha-pinene, l-alpha-phellandrene, dipentene, bornyl-acetate, cadinene, S-guaiazulene and a bicyclic sesquiterpene. The oil distilled from the leaves collected in Gul-marg had a ester content of 23.2% (as bornyl acetate). The bark contained 4.22% tannin.

Picea abies has been introduced at Manali (at 1,890 m). It yields an ole-oresin which is used in plasters and ointments. The essential oil is used in

Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

perfumes and cosmetics. The needles yielded dilignol glycosides.

Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

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