Perilla frutescens Linn Britton

Family ► Labiatae; Lamiacae.

Habitat ► Throughout the Himalayas up to an altitude of about 3,500 m, and in the hills of Assam.

English ► Perilla, Wild Coleus.

Peristrophe bicalyculata Nees. 473

Folk ► Bhanjeer, Ban-tulasi, Ban-jiraa, Bhasindi.

Action ► Herb—sedative, antispas-modic, antiasthmatic, resolvent.

P. frutescens var. crispa is used in mixtures prescribed for cough and lung affections.

Several chemotypes of Perilla have been detected. The Indian type is rich in rosefuran. Other components are perillene, perilla ketone, beta-caryo-phyllene, phellandrene and a few ses-quiterpenoids. Aerial parts gave ethyl linolenate, linolenic acid and beta-sitosterol. The leaves also gave an an-thocyanin, perillanin. The leaves and flowering tops yield essential oils containing perilla ketone as major com-ponent—94% in leaf oils and 47% in inflorescence oils at fruiting stage.

Perillaldehyde, a major component of the plant extract, inhibits (moderately) a broad range of both bacteria and fungi. The MeOH extract of var. acuta Kudo is reported to prolong hexobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Dillapiol has been isolated as the active principle from the methanolic extract.

The leaves and stems contain 2.2% of resin alcohol, a bitter substance, tannin and small quantities of a glucosidal principle which produces first a decrease and then an increase in blood pressure. The bark contain 8% tannin.

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