Morinda citrifolia Linn

Synonym ► M. bracteata Roxb.

Family ► Rubiaceae.

Habitat ► Sub-Himalayan tracts, Darjeeling, Konkan and the Andamans.

English ► Indian Mulberry.

Ayurvedic ► Ashyuka, Akshi, Atchy.

Siddha/Tamil ► Nunaa, Togaru.

Action ► Fruit—emmenagogue, antileucorrhoeic, antidysenteric, anticatarrhal (used in throat infections and asthma). Root and leaf—cathartic, febrifuge, anti-inflammatory (used in gout). Root—anticongestive, hypotensive. A decoction is given to regulate menstruation.

The heartwood yielded anthraqui-nones—alizarin and its glycosides, nor-damnacanthol. Leaves contain ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol. Fruits gave asperuloside and caproic acid.

The lyophilized aqueous extract of roots was evaluated for analgesic and behavioural effects in mice; positive results were observed confirming a sedative property without exhibiting any toxic effects.

Ethanolic extract of the plant showed significant antimicrobial activity.

Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham., M. tinctoria Roxb. (dry forests throughout the greater part of India) is considered as the wild form or a varient of Morin-da citrifolia and is known by the same vernacular nemes. The root bark gave the insecticidal glycoside, morindin-6-primeveroside, which was found lethal on cockroaches and houseflies topically.

Morinda umbellata L. (Bihar, Khasi Hills and Peninsular India) is also known as Nunaa in Tamil Nadu.

A decoction of root and leaves is used for diarrhoea and dysentery. The root bark contains a considerable amount of rubichloric acid and small quantities of anthraquinones.

422 Moringa concanensis Nimmo ex Gibs.

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