Michelia champaca Linn

Family ► Magnoliaceae.

Habitat ► Eastern Himalayas, lower hills of Assam, hills of South India up to 1,000 m., cultivated in various parts of India.

English ► Champak, Golden Champa.

Ayurvedic ► Champaka, Svarna Champaka, Hemapushpa, Chaam-peya.

Siddha/Tamil ► Sampagi.

Action ► Flowers—bitter, carminative, antispasmodic, demulcent, antiemetic, diuretic (used for dy-suria), antipyretic. Fruits—used for dyspepsia and renal diseases. Bark—stimulant, diuretic and febrifuge. Dried root and root bark—purgative and emmena-gogue. Externally—flower oil is used as an application in cepha-lalgia, gout and rheumatism; fruits and seeds for healing cracks in feet.

The ethanolic extract of the stem bark showed hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The benzene extract of the anthers showed 67% post-coital antiimplantation activity in rats (1000 mg/ kg per day).

Stem bark and roots yielded an alkaloid liriodenine. Root bark yielded sesquiterpene lactones (including parthenolide and micheliolide). Leaves gave a polyisoprenoid, beta-sitosterol and liriodenine. Mono-and sesquiter-penes occur in essential oils isolated from the flowers, leaf and fruit ring.

The bark and root cortex of the Chinese plant gave magnosprengerine (0.41%) and salicifoline (0.39%). These active principles showed lasting muscle relaxant and hypotensive activity.

The bark of Michelia montana Blume (Eastern Himalayas and hills of Assam)

Micromelum integerrimum (Buch-Ham.) Roem. 413

is used as a bitter tonic in fevers. It bears white and fragrant flowers. The leaf and stem yield an essential oil, 0.95 and 0.36% on fresh basis, respectively. The flowers contains 75% safrole and the latter 76% sarisan.

Michelia nilgarica Zenk. (Western Ghats, above 1,700 m) is known as Kattu-sambagam in Tamil Nadu, the yellow-flowered var. of Champaa. The bark and leaves are considered febrifuge. The bark contains a volatile oil, acrid resins, tannin and a bitter principle. The flowers yield a volatile oil similar to the bark oil. Aerial parts exhibit diuretic and spasmolytic activity.

Dosage ► Dried buds and flowers— 1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. IV.) Bark— 50-100 m decoction. (CCRAS.)

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