Family ► Asclepiadaceae.
Habitat ► Himalayas from Kumaon to Assam, up to 1,500 m, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Deccan Peninsula.
English ► White Turpeth.
Ayurvedic ► Muurvaa, Atirasaa, Madhurasaa, Gokarni, Morataa, Madhulikaa, Suvaa, Devi, Tejani, Tiktavalli.
Siddha/Tamil ► Perunkurinjan.
Action ► Root—purgative, antispas-modic, mild CNS depressant; used in colic.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the bark in lipid disorders, also in polyuria and haemorrha-gic diseases.
Roots and seeds are rich in pregnane glycosides of 2-deoxysugars, which on hydrolysis gave genins and sugars. Stem yielded tenacissosides A to E.
In folk medicine, the root is known as White Turpeth (Safed Nishoth). Op-erculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso synonym Ipomoea turpethum R. Br. is the source of Turpeth (Nishoth) in Indian medicine.
Family ► Marsileaceae.
Habitat ► Throughout India as a weed in marshy places.
Ayurvedic ► Sunishannaka, Parnaka, Vastika-parnika, Swastika, Cha-tushpatri, Susunishaak, Chaupaitra.
Action ► Sedative. Used in insomnia and in the treatment of epilepsy and behavioral disorders.
The most active anti-epileptic principle is marsilin (1-triacontanol cero-tate).
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