Glycine max Merrill

Synonym ► G. soja Sieb. & Zucc. G. hispida Maxim.

Family ► Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat ► Native to South East Asia; now cultivated as pulse crop mainly in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Naga Hills, Mainpur and Kashmir.

Folk ► Soyabean, Raam Kurthi, Bhat.

Action ► Used as a protein supplement. (Products include fortified wheat flour, soymilk, snack foods, cooking oil.)

Key application ► Soy lecithin (phos-pholipids extracted from the seeds of G. max)—used for moderate disturbances of fat metabolism, especially hypercholesterolaemic (if dietary measures are not sufficient). (German Commission E.)

Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. 289

Soybean is rich in protein, oil and minerals, but low in carbohydrates. It also contains water-and fat-soluble vitamins. The major portion of soy protein is composed of glycinin and beta-conglycinin.

Wheat flour can be fortified with full-fat or defatted soyflour forbalanc-ing it in essential amino acids, lysine and methionine.

Soy saponins are divided into three groups according to their respective type of aglycon, soyasapogenol A, B and E. Saponin A and AB group fraction protects the liver against antioxidation and improved lipid metabolism in the injured liver.

Administration of a small peptide derived from soybean showed antifatigue, antiobesity and hypoglycaemic activity in mice.

Feeding soy protein to hamsters, consistently, resulted in significantly reduced incidence of gallstones.

In studies of experimental carcino-genesis in animals, soybean isoflavones exhibited protective effect in 65% animals.

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