Family Rutaceae

Habitat ► Tropical Himalayas, from Kumaon eastwards to Assam, Khasi hills and throughout the Western Peninsula.

English ► Wild Orange tree, Forest Pepper.

Torenia travancorica Gamble.

Ayurvedic ► Kanchana.

Siddha/Tamil ► Kattu Milagu, Milagaranai.

Folk ► Jangali Kaali-mirch, Kanja.

Action ► Whole plant—febrifuge, diuretic, Leaves—antispasmodic. Rootbark—antipyretic, diaphoretic, antiperiodic.

Used as a tonic during convalescence and constitutional debility. (The rootbark was used medicinally in the past in Europe under the name Lopez Root or Cortex Radicis as an antimalarial drug.)

Unripe fruits and roots are included in liniments used for rheumatism.

The rootbark contains alkaloids, including toddaline, toddalinine, skim-mianine. The root gave coumarins, including toddanol, toddanone, todda-sin, pimpinellin, iso-pimpinellin and toddalolactone.

Alkaloid toddaline is irritant to the mucous membrane, bronchi, intestines and the bladder.

Ethanolic extract of var. obtusifolia Gemble, found in the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, exhibited spasmolytic activity.

Among the coumarins, chlorocou-marin is the most important active principle and can be used an alternative for papaverine obtained from poppy.

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