Family Lamiaceae

Habitat ► Himalaya from Kashmir to Nepal, at 1,200-3,700 m.

Folk ► Patkarru; Titpaati, Karanoi, Karui (Kumaon); Kaur, Kauri (Punjab).

Action ► Leaves—a decoction is used as a bitter tonic and febrifuge; also as a tonic in contusions. The leaves contain betulin, beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin, stigmasterol, cetyl alcohol, glucose, fructose, arabinose and palmitic, stearic, oleic, gallic, oxalic and tartaric acids. The leaves and stems contain the diterpenes, calyenone, precalyone and calyone, and a triterpene, moronic acid. Precalyone exhibited antitumour activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia.

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