Synonym ► E. tetragonum Roxb. E. perrottetii Griseb.
Family ► Gentianaceae.
Habitat ► Upper Gangetic plains and tropical Himalaya, also in South India.
Ayurvedic ► Ava-chiraayataa (bigger var. of chiraayataa).
Folk ► Titakhana, Uudakiraayita (Maharashtra).
Action ► Stomachic,febrifuge, antifungal, bitter tonic.
The leaves gave apigenin, luteolin, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocate-chuic and p-coumaric acids.
A related species. Exacum pedun-culatum L., found throughout India, ascending up to 1,000 m, is also used as a substitute for Swertia chirayita and Gentiana lutea. Pounded plant is applied externally in rheumatism and gout. It also gave luteolin, diosmetin and phenolic acids.
Evolvulus nummularius Linn.
Family ► Convolvulaceae.
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