English Sweet Violet

Unani ► Banafashaa, Banafsaj, Kakosh, Fareer.

Action ► Expectorant, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, antipyretic, diuretic. Used for catarrhal and pulmonary affections, also for diseases of liver and intestines.

Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E, but it has been mentioned that the traditional use of sweet violet root as an expectorant for the respiratory tract is well documented.

The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes expectorant activity of the leaf.

The flowers (var. maxima) are a source of rutoside. The flowers also contain anthocyanin, violanin chloride, which on hydrolysis yields glucose, delphinidin, rhamnose and p-coumaric acid. High content of toco-pherol is also reported from flowers.

Dried flowers contain anthocyanin 4.0, total flavonoids 1.1, rutoside 0.4, mucilage 18, and ash 8.5%.

The leaves contain friedelin and beta-sitosterol.

The essential oil from the entire plant consists of methyl salicylate. A di-C-glycoside, violanthin, has been reported from the plant.

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