Apium leptophyllum

Family ► Umbelliferae.

Habitat ► Native to America; cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka.

Ayurvedic ► Ajmodaa, Dipyaka.

Action ► See Apium graveolens.

The essential oil contains Meethers of thymol, carvacrol and thymoquinol; used as a carminative. The oil shows strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and moderate activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria.

Synonym ► A. malaccensis Lamk.

Family ► Thymelaceae.

Habitat ► The hills of Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur and Tripura.

English ► Aloewood, Eaglewood, Agarwood.

Ayurvedic ► Aguru, Krimij, Krish-naaguru, Jongaka, Maaliyaka, Loha, Kaalaloha, Asitaka.

Siddha/Tamil ► Akil kattai, Agil.

Action ► Heartwood—astringent, carminative, antiasthmatic, anti-diarrhoeal, antidysenteric; used in gout, rheumatism and paralysis; as a stimulant in sexual debility; as a liniment in skin diseases.

The agarwood or eaglewood of commerce is derived from the fungus-infected tree through wounds caused by the species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and also by some of Fungi Imperfecti. Agarwood on distillation yields an essential oil, known as Agar Oil.

The essential oil yields a number of agarofurans, sesquiterpene alcohols and spirosesquiterpene alcohols.

The stemwood yields sesquiterpe-noids—gmelofuran and agarol; also a coumarinolignan—aquillochin.

(Agar is a different drug—extract of a seaweed, Gelidium Amansii, used as a mild laxative.)

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