English Teak tree

Ayurvedic Shaaka, Bhuumisaha, Dwaaradaaru, Varadaaru, Kharach-hada, Saagawaan, Saagauna. Action Flower used in bronchitis, biliousness and urinary discharges. Flower and seed diuretic. Wood expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antibilious, anthelmintic. Used for inflammatory swellings. Bark astringent. Used in bronchitis. Root used for anuria and retention of urine. Nut oil used in the treatment of scabies and other skin diseases also for promoting hair growth. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India...

English Puneala Plum

Ayurvedic Praachinaamalaka, Paaniyaamalaka. Taalispatri Hindi , Taalispatra Gujarati , Taalisam Malyalaam , Taalispatramu Tel-ugu are confusing synonyms of Paaniyaamalaka. Unani Taalisfar, Nabaq Hindi, Zarnab. In National Formulary of Unani Medicine, Zarnab, synonym Telispattar, is equated with F. catapracta, also with Cinnamonum tamala Nees. Zarnab is also equated with Salix aegyptiaca Sprengel and Taalisfar with Rhododendron anthapogon D. Don or R. lipidotum by Unani scholars.

English Teri Pods

Action Root astringent and antipyretic, used in phthisis and scrofulous affections. The roots gave a phenolic compound vakerin, identical with bergenin. The ethanol-water extract of roots inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The pods contain 28 tannin without seeds, more than 54 . The bark contains 28 tannin without seeds, more than 54 . The tannin is pure gallo-tannin and gallic acid. Dosage Root 3-5 g powder. CCRAS.

English Broom Creeper Ink Berry

Ayurvedic Chhilihinta, Paataala-garuda, Mahaamuulaa, Dirghavalli, Jalajamani. Action Root laxative, sudorific, alterative, antirheumatic. Leaf used externally for eczema, prurigo and inpetigo. A decoction of leaves is taken in eczema, leucorrhoea and gonorrhoea. Aqueous extract of stem and root sedative, anticonvulsant, hypotensive, bradycardiac, cardiotonic and sapas-molytic. Roots are used as a substitute for Sarsaparilla in chronic rheumatism gout, and syphilitic cachexia. The stem contains...

English Rohida tree

Ayurvedic Rohitaka, Rohi, Daadimpushpaka, Daadimchhada, Plihaghna. Amoora rohituka is also known as Rohitaka. Action Bark relaxant, cardiotonic, choleretic. Heartwood toxic due to lapachol. Used for the treatment of leucorrhoea, diseases of the liver and spleen, leucoderma, syphilis and other skin diseases. The bark contains tecomin veratryl beta-D-glucoside , alkanes, alkanols and beta-sitosterols. The bark also yielded chromone glycosides undu-latosides A and B, and iridoid glu-cosides...

English Indian Napellus

Ayurvedic Visha, Shringika-Visha, Vatsanaabha related sp. . Action Sedative, antirheumatic, analgesic, antitussive, antidiar-rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. See A.ferox. It has the same uses as A. ferox. The alkaloid content of the root ranges from 2.98 to 3.11 includes chasmaconitine and chasmanthinine. Napellus, equated with Aconitum napellus Linn., is indigenous to Central Europe named after the Black sea port Aconis and...

Folk Chanchu shaaka Baaphali

Action Astringent, spasmolytic, restorative, mucilaginous. The plant contains betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol. Seeds yield cardeno-lides including trilocularin. The glyco-sides of the plant were found to be devoid of any effect of its own on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum, but produced spasmolytic effect against acetylcholine, histamine andbradykinin. Direct action of the drug was observed on rabbit intestines. Slight cardiac depressant effect was found on isolated amphibian heart...

English Palmyra Palm Brab tree

Williams. Ayurvedic Taala, Taada, Trinraj, Mahonnata, Lekhyapatra. Siddha Tamil Panai, Panaimaram. Action Fresh sap diuretic, cooling, antiphlegmatic, laxative, antiinflammatory. Slightly fermented juice is given in diabetes. Palm-jaggery used as an energy food for convalscents. Ash of dry spadix antacid, antibilious used in heartburn . Young root, terminal buds, leaf-stalks used in gastritis and hiccups. The sap is given as a tonic to asthmatic and anaemic...

Phragmites karka Trin ex Steud

Habitat The Himalayas, from Kashmir to Kumaon up to an altitude of 4,000 m. Action Rhizomes and roots diuretic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, hypoglycaemic, antiemetic. The rhizomes are rich in carbohydrates contain nitrogenous substances 5.2, fat 0.9, N-free extr. 50.8, crude fibre 32.0, sucrose 5.1, reducing sugars 1.1, and ash rich in silica 5.8 as-paragine 0.1 is also present. Leaves possess a high ascorbic acid content 200 mg 100 g .Nodes and sheaths yield 6.6 and the underground parts over 13...

English Pongam Oil tree Indian Beech

Action Oil applied in scabies, herpes, leucoderma and other cutaneous diseases over chest in pneumonia and cold also used internally as cholagogue in sluggish liver. Leaves juice is prescribed in flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and cough. An infusion is given for leprosy and gonorrhoea. Root a paste is used in scrofulous enlargements juice is used for cleaning foul ulcers and closing fistulous sores. Stem bark given internally in bleeding piles. Rind of pod and seed prescribed in bronchitis...

Bibliography

The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I, second revised edn., Ministry of Health, Govt. of India. 2003. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I., Vol I to IV 2004 , API , Ministry of Health, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Bartram's Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine, Marlowe amp Company, New York. 1998. The British Herbal Compendium, British Herbal Medicine Association. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, British Herbal Medicine Association. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Ram P. Rastogi...

Siddha Tamil Athimathuram

Action Demulcent, expectorant, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress, antidepressive, antiulcer, liver protective, estrogenic, em-menagogue, antidiabetic. Used in bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, catarrh, tuberculosis genitourinary diseases, urinary tract infections abdominal pain, gastric and duodenal ulcers, inflamed stomach, mouth ulcer. Also used for adrenocorticoid insufficiency. Key application In catarrh of the upper respiratory tract and...

Acacia canescens Grab

Habitat Bihar and South India. Ayurvedic Aadaari related sp. Folk Ari, Araara. Action See A. torta. Habitat Drier regions of India, particularly Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan. Ayurvedic Khadira, Kadara, Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan, Kantaki, Raktasaara heartwood extract . Unani Khair, Kaat, Katthaa heartwood extract . Siddha Tamil Karunkaali bark , Kalippakku, Kadiram. Katthakkaambu, Kaasukkatti heartwood extract ....

Amomum aromaticum Roxb

Action Similar to that of A. subula-tum. The seeds yield on essential oil 1.01.2 containing cineole as the principal constituent. Chinese practitioners avoid the use of cardamom in conditions marked by symptoms of excessive heat. Unani Heel Kalaan, Qaaqule Kubaar. Siddha Tamil Peria Elam, Kattu Elam, Beraelam. Action Stomachic, antiemetic, an-tibilious, astringent, alexipharmic used for the treatment of indigestion, biliousness, abdominal pains, vomiting, in...

English Fireflame Bush Shiranjitea

Ayurvedic Dhaataki, Dhaatri, Kun-jaraa, Taamrapushpi, Bahupushpi, Vahnijwaalaa. Action Dried flower purifies blood, heals ulcers, astringent, prescribed in haemetemesis, erysipelas, dysentery, diarrhoea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea. Flowers are used in alcohol-based tonics for fermentation a yeast strain, saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been isolated . Bark uterine sedative. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn-dia recommends the flower in acute diarrhoea, haemorrhages, ulcerations and erysipelas. The...

English Common Dandelion

Ayurvedic Dugdh-pheni, Luutaari, Payaswani. Unani Kaanful, Kaasani Dashti, Kaasani Sahraayi, Hind-baa-al-Barri. Not to be confused with Ci-chorium intybus, known as Kaasani. Action Root diuretic, cholagogue, pancreatic and bile duct stimulant, stimulant to portal circulation, choleretic, urinary antiseptic, detoxicant, promotes elimination of plasma cholesterol. Used chiefly in kidney and liver disorders, for rheumatism and as a general tonic. A decoction is given for infective hepatitis. Key...

Internet Resources of Herbal Medicine

AGRICOLA Agricultural Online Access Alternative Medicine Connection www.arxc.com Alternative Medicine Home Page, from the University of Pittsburg For WHO Herbal Monographs under Development, see entry for Alternative Medicine Home Page from the University of Pittsburg. Alternative Medicine, University of Texas American Botanical Council http www.herbalgram.org American Herbal Pharmacopoeia http www.herbal-aph.org American Herbalists Guild http www.americanherbalistsguild.com Andrew Weil's...

Divergent Plant Sources of Important Classical Herbs

Leptadenia reticulata Asclepiadaceae Marsdenia tenacissima Asclepiadaceae Naagakeshara Mesuaferrea Clusiaceae Paashaanabheda Bergenia ligulata Saxifragaceae Substitute Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae Priyangu Callicarpa macrophylla Verbenaceae Substitute Prunus mahaleb Rosaceae Prishniparni Uraria picta Fabaceae South India Dysoxylum malabaricum Meliaceae South India Premna herbacea Verbanaceae Bengal Picrasma quassioides Simarubaceae South India Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae South India...

Pluchea indica Less

The extracts of defatted roots showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The extracts inhibited protein exudation and leucocyte migration. Neuropharmacological studies on different experimental models of rodents exhibited potent central nervous system depressant activity. The methanolic fraction of the extract exhibited significant hepatopro-tective activity against induced hepa-totoxicity in rats and mice. The extract also caused significant reduction in the elevated serum enzyme levels...

English Soapnut tree of South India

Ayurvedic Arishtaka, Pheni-la, Raktabeeja, Reethaakaranja, Garbhapaatana. Siddha Tamil Puvamkottai, Mani pungu. Action Fruit astringent, emetic, detergent, anthelmintic. Pulp aqueous solution used as nasal drops in migraine, epilepsy and hysteria. Root used for gout, rheumatism and paralysis. Saponin from pericarp of nuts yielded the genins, methylhedragenate, sap-indic acid and methyl oleanolate. Dosage Fruit 3-6 g powder. CCRAS.

Narcissus tazetta Linn

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia. The rhizome is rich in sesquiter-penoids. The crude drug gave an oil yield 2.5 v w , which contains d-nardostachone, valeranone and jata-mansone as the major ketonic sesqui-terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats. Jatamansone was shown to exert...

About the Author CP Khare

Khare was born on December 18, 1932, and has been a herbalist for more than fifty years. He was born into a family of herbal physicians. He studied the original Ayurvedic texts and acquired first-hand knowledge of the cultivation and processing of herbs and their usage even before going to college. In 1952, he took up journalism. Since then he has edited and contributed many features on health and personal problems to various journals. He has been Director of India's largest magazine...

Abbreviations

ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme ACTH Andrenocorticotrophic hormone AFI The Ayurvedic Formulary of India Revised English Edition API The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume 1 1989, Volume II 1999, III 2001, IV 2004. Aq. Aqueous British Herbal Ed. Bradley PR., published by British Herbal Medicine British Herbal Published by British Herbal Medicine Association, Pharmacopoeia Exeter, UK., 1996. CCRAS Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi. Standard...

Wedelia calendulaceae

Habitat Bengal, Assam, Konkan, and Tamil Nadu. Ayurvedic Bhringaraaja yellow-flowered var. , Pitabhringi, Pitabhringa-raaja, Avanti, Ke-sharaaja, Kesharaaga. Siddha Tamil Manjal karisaalai, Potralai kaiyan tagarai, Patalai Kaiantakerai. Action Leaves bechic used in alopecia, juice used for dyeing hair and for promoting hair growth. Plant deobstruent used in menorrhagia and abdominal swellings, as a tonic for hepatic and splenic enlargement. The expressed juice of the herb contained an...

Important Herbs of Non Indian Origin used in Unani system of Medicine

Fungus grown on old pine trees in South and Central Europe A. Longa North America A. Indica India Iran, Baluchistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Nepal, Tibet Asia, Southern parts of Russia, Poland Upper Gangetic plains, Dehradun, Bihar plateau, Tropical and sub-tropical parts of India including the Himalayas and Andamans. A. adscendens Western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, Kumaon, Chamba Europe and the British Isles, naturalized in parts of North America England, Europe, North Africa, North America...

Standardized Extracts of Indian Herbs used in India

Powder Paste Alkaloids 0.15 , Tannins 2.4 -4 Powder Glycosides 15 , Alkaloids 1 Powder Paste Tannins 5 , Mucilage 10 -15 Powder Paste Alliin 1.5 -2.5 by HPLC Powder Paste Gel Gum Aloin 1.5 3 1 , Polysaccharides 50 200 1 Powder Paste Shagaol gt 4 by HPLC Powder Paste Andrographolides gt 10 Powder Paste Bacosides 15 -50 , Alkaloids 5 Powder Paste Boswellic acids gt 50 Powder Paste Polyphenols gt 45 by HPLC Powder Paste Asiaticosides gt 10 , Powder Paste Flavones gt 4 , Vol. Oil 1 Powder Acidity...

Piper attenuatum

Habitat Eastern tropical Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills and the Nilgiris. Action Root diuretic. Plant rubefacient used for muscular pains and headache. Several aristolactams have been reported from the aerial parts of the plant. Crotepoxide exhibited significant antitumour activity. Roots contain alkamides including piperine, piperlonguminine and guineensine.

Leea macrophylla Roxb

Habitat North-Eastern India and in Western parts of Deccan Peninsula. Folk Banachelt Maharashtra , Banachalit Bengal , Nalugu, Nellu Kerala . Action Leaves applied to wounds. Root tubers used for guineaworm. Plant a host of the Indian lac insect. Habitat Throughout hotter parts of India. Ayurvedic Hastikanda, Hasti-karna Palaasha Kekidandaa. Folk Hatkan, Dholsamudra, Haath, Kaan. Action Astringent, anodyne, styptic, antiseptic. Root tubers astringent, mucilaginous applied to wounds and sores...

Putranjiva roxburghii Wall

Hurusawa. Habitat Throughout tropical India, wild and cultivated as an avenue tree. English Child-life tree, Indian Amulet Plant, Spurious Wild Olive. Ayurvedic Putranjiva, Putrajivaka, Putrajiva, Yashtipushpa, Arth-saadhana Siddha Tamil Karupali Garbhadaa and Garbhakaraa are misleading synonyms. Action Fruit powered deseeded fruits are used against cough, cold and sprue. Rosaries of hard stones are used for protecting children from infections. Due to...

Apium leptophyllum

Habitat Native to America cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka. The essential oil contains Meethers of thymol, carvacrol and thymoquinol used as a carminative. The oil shows strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and moderate activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria. Habitat The hills of Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur and Tripura. English Aloewood, Eaglewood, Agarwood. Ayurvedic Aguru, Krimij, Krish-naaguru, Jongaka, Maaliyaka,...

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India

In 1978, German Federal Health Agency now called the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices established an expert committee on herbal remedies called Commission E . The Commission E is composed of 24 members, including physicians, pharmacists, non-medical practitioners, pharmacologists, toxicolo-gists, biostatisticians, and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Fifty percent are experts from clinical therapeutic field. There are 13 full university professors on the...

Borreria articularis

Habitat Throughout India, as a weed in cultivated and sallow lands and pastures. Folk Ghanti-chi-bhaaji Maharashtra , Gatbhanjan, Satgathiyaa. Action Herb used in the treatment of headache. Root prescribed as a mouthwash in toothache. Leaf juice is given as an astringent in haemorrhoids. Seeds used as demulcent in diarrhoea and dysentery. The weed contains beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid and D-mannitol. It is rich in calcium and phosphorus. Isorham-netin, a flavonoid, is reported in the seeds.

Hyptis suaveolens Linn Poit

Ayurvedic Tumbaaka provisional synonym . Folk Gangaa Tulasi, Vilaayati Tulasi, Bhunsari. Action Carminative, antispasmodic, antisoporific, antirheumatic, anticephalalgic, lactagogue. Used in catarrhal and uterine affections, parasitical cutaneous diseases, epistaxis. The plant gave lupeol, lupeol acetate and friedelin, leaves and flowers gave campesterol and fucosterol roots contained beta-sitosterol, oleanolic and alpha-peltoboykinolic acids. The plant gave an essential oil containing...

Trachyspermum roxburghianum DC Craib

Benth. amp Hk f. Habitat Cultivated throughout India. Ayurvedic Ajamodaa, Ajamoda, Ayamoda, Ajmoja, Dipyaka. Action Seeds carminative, stomachic, stimulant, cardiac tonic. Used for dyspepsia, vomiting, hiccough, bronchitis, asthma, and pain in bladder also as an emmenagogue. The seeds yield the coumarins bergaptene, 7-methoxy-6-methyl cou-marin and umbelliferone. Beta-sitos-terol is also reported. Major constituent of the essential oil from the seeds are...

Crocus sativus Linn

Habitat Cultivated in Kashmir up to 2,000 m and in Chaubattia in Uttar Pradesh. Ayurvedic Kumkuma, Rudhira, Vadrika, Kaashmira, Kaashmiraka, Vaalhika, Agnishikhaa, Ghrusrrn, Rakta, Kshataja. Keshara usually Keshara indicates Naagakeshara, Mesuaferrea Linn. Siddha Tamil Kumgumappoo dried stigma . Action Stigma and style nervine tonic, sedative, antispasmodic expectorant in dry cough, whooping cough, bronchitis , stomachic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated...

Unani Ood Saleeb Ood Gharqi

Action Root antispasmodic, sedative, smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilatory, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, em-menagogue, hepatoprotective. Flower used for diseases of mucous membranes, fissures, anal fissures associated with haemorrhoids, also for ailments of the respiratory tract, nervous conditions and skin diseases. Root used for arthritis, neuralgia, neurasthenia, migraine, epilepsy, allergic disorders, whooping cough and painful spasms. The herb gave monoterpene ester glucosides...

Sansevieria hyacinthoides

Habitat Native to Sri Lanka found along coastal regions of India from Bengal to Tamil Nadu. Ayurvedic Naagadamani related species also known as Muurvaa . Siddha Tamil Marul, Motta manji. Action See S. roxburghiana. Leaves and rhizomes are applied externally in high fever with delirium. Rhizomes diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant. The leaf contains aconitic acid the root yielded an alkaloid sansevierine 0.018 .

Siddha Tamil Parangi chakkai

Action Tubers used as alterative in venereal diseases, chronic skin diseases and rheumatic affections. Used as official sarsaparilla. China of homoeopathic medicine is Peruvian bark, not Smilax china. Sarsaparilla Smilax species is used in Oriental as well as in Western herbal for its alterative, gentle circulatory stimulant and mild testosterone activity. The root is known for its steroidal saponins. Pro-sapogenin-A of dioscin, dioscin, gracillin. Me-protogracillin, Me-protodioscin and its...

Tylophora indica

Synonym T. asthamatica Wight amp Arn. Habitat Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Peninsular India. English Emetic Swallow Wort, Indian or Country Ipecacuanha. Ayurvedic Antamuula, Muulini, Arkaparni. Siddha Tamil Nay Palai, Nangilaip-piratti. Action Leaves used for bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyl-tylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaem-pferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and...

English Shellot

Unani Gandanaa, Ek-daanaa Lehsun, Ek-potia Lehsum. Also equated with Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. Action Anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, hypocholesterolaemic. The aqueous extract of the bulbs contains mainly fructose 50 , besides glucose, arabinose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, glucosamine and uronic acid. It also contains lysine, glu-tamic acid and aspartic acid. It shows significant activity against P-388 lym-phocytic leukaemia in mice. In experiments on rabbits, the alcoholic extracts of the...

Martynia annua Linn

Habitat Native of Mexico found throughout India. English Devil's Claw, Tiger Claw. Ayurvedic Kaakanaasikaa, Kaakaangi, Shirobal. Siddha Tamil Kakatundi, Thelko-dukkukai. Action Leaf used in epilepsy, also applied to tuberculous glands of the neck. Fruit anti-inflammatory. Ash of the fruit, mixed with coconut oil, is applied on burns. Seed oil applied on abscesses and for treating itching and skin affections. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn-dia recommends the seed for arresting greying of hair....

English Mongoose Plant

Gandha-naakuli is a wrong synonym. It is equated with Aristolochia indica. Folk Sarahati. Mungus-vel Maharashtra . Action Root bitter tonic. Leaves used for dressing ulcers. The roots contain starch, a resin and small amounts of a bitter amorphous alkaloid. Beta-sitosterol, 5-alpha-ergost-7-en-3-beta-ol and 5-alpha-ergost-8 14 -en-3 beta-ol as an ester have been identified in the root. Leaves and stems contain traces of hydrocyanic acid.

Ochrocarpus longifolius

Ayurvedic Barbari, Tuvari, Tungi, Kharpushpa, Ajgandhikaa, Baabui Tulasi. Unani Faranjmishk. also equated with Dracocephalum moldavica Linn. by National Formulary of Unani Medicine. , Raihan also equated with O. sanctum . used as a substitute for Phanijjaka. Siddha Tamil Tiruneetruppachhilai. Folk Bana-Tulasi. Sabzaa Maharashtra . Action Flower stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent. Seed antidysenteric. Juice of the plant antibacterial. Essential oil antibacterial,...

Ayurvedic Neelkanthi

Folk Ratapaati Kumaon , Khur-banti Punjab . Action Astringent, febrifugal given in intermittent fever , stimulant, aperient, diuretic. Used for the treatment of gout and rheumatism also for amenorrhoea. Juice of the leaves blood purifier. The powder is used for burns and boils. The leaves are used in fever as a substitute for cinchona. An aqueous extract of the leaves showed diuretic activity. An alkaloidal fraction showed stimulant action on the perfused frog heart. The plant exhibited...

Ayurvedic Dochunty Uchunti Sahadevi related sp

Action Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, styptic. The leaf is reported to contain stig-masterol 59.9 and beta-sitosterol 26.7 as major component of sterol faction. The dried flowering plant contains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycop-samine and echinatine. An aqueous extract of leaves is reported to show haemostatic activity. The plant extract exhibited muscle relaxant activity experimentally. The ethanolic extract 95 of roots possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties....

English Desert Date

Ayurvedic Ingudi, Angaar Vrksha, Taapasadrum, Taapasa vrksha, Dirghkantaka. Folk Hingol, Hingota, Hingothaa. Action Seed expectorant, bechic. Oil antibacterial, antifungal. Fruit used in whooping cough also in leucoderma and other skin diseases. Bark spasmolytic. The plant is reported to be a potential source of diosgenin used in oral contraceptives . The fruit pulp contains steroidal saponins. The dios-genin content of the fruit varies from 0.3 to 3.8 . Aqueous extract of fruits showed...