English Teak tree

Ayurvedic Shaaka, Bhuumisaha, Dwaaradaaru, Varadaaru, Kharach-hada, Saagawaan, Saagauna. Action Flower used in bronchitis, biliousness and urinary discharges. Flower and seed diuretic. Wood expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antibilious, anthelmintic. Used for inflammatory swellings. Bark astringent. Used in bronchitis. Root used for anuria and retention of urine. Nut oil used in the treatment of scabies and other skin diseases also for promoting hair growth. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India...

English Teri Pods

Action Root astringent and antipyretic, used in phthisis and scrofulous affections. The roots gave a phenolic compound vakerin, identical with bergenin. The ethanol-water extract of roots inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The pods contain 28 tannin without seeds, more than 54 . The bark contains 28 tannin without seeds, more than 54 . The tannin is pure gallo-tannin and gallic acid. Dosage Root 3-5 g powder. CCRAS.

Euphrasia simplex D

Orally, Eyebright is used to treat allergies, common cold, bronchial conditions and sinusitis. Ophthalmic application is not recommended. Eye-bright has been used in a British herbal tobacco product, which was smoked for cold and chronic bronchial conditions. Aerial parts showed presence of phenol, carboxylic acid, flavones and methyl flavone derivatives. Plant gave quercetin glucoside, diosmetin, kaem-pferol, caffeic and ferulic acids, stig-masterol and beta-sitosterol. Iridoid glycosides,...

Michelia champaca Linn

Habitat Eastern Himalayas, lower hills of Assam, hills of South India up to 1,000 m., cultivated in various parts of India. Ayurvedic Champaka, Svarna Champaka, Hemapushpa, Chaam-peya. Action Flowers bitter, carminative, antispasmodic, demulcent, antiemetic, diuretic used for dy-suria , antipyretic. Fruits used for dyspepsia and renal diseases. Bark stimulant, diuretic and febrifuge. Dried root and root bark purgative and emmena-gogue. Externally flower oil is used as an application in...

English Indian Napellus

Ayurvedic Visha, Shringika-Visha, Vatsanaabha related sp. . Action Sedative, antirheumatic, analgesic, antitussive, antidiar-rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. See A.ferox. It has the same uses as A. ferox. The alkaloid content of the root ranges from 2.98 to 3.11 includes chasmaconitine and chasmanthinine. Napellus, equated with Aconitum napellus Linn., is indigenous to Central Europe named after the Black sea port Aconis and...

Folk Chanchu shaaka Baaphali

Action Astringent, spasmolytic, restorative, mucilaginous. The plant contains betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol. Seeds yield cardeno-lides including trilocularin. The glyco-sides of the plant were found to be devoid of any effect of its own on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum, but produced spasmolytic effect against acetylcholine, histamine andbradykinin. Direct action of the drug was observed on rabbit intestines. Slight cardiac depressant effect was found on isolated amphibian heart...

Phragmites karka Trin ex Steud

Habitat The Himalayas, from Kashmir to Kumaon up to an altitude of 4,000 m. Action Rhizomes and roots diuretic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, hypoglycaemic, antiemetic. The rhizomes are rich in carbohydrates contain nitrogenous substances 5.2, fat 0.9, N-free extr. 50.8, crude fibre 32.0, sucrose 5.1, reducing sugars 1.1, and ash rich in silica 5.8 as-paragine 0.1 is also present. Leaves possess a high ascorbic acid content 200 mg 100 g .Nodes and sheaths yield 6.6 and the underground parts over 13...

Ammi majus Linn

Habitat Cultivated in Jammu and Himachal Pradesh. English Biship's Weed-Amee, Greater Ammi. Action Source of xanthotoxin, a drug employed in the treatment of leucoderma. Dried fruit powder or extract of the plant is used topically in vitiligo. The fruits contain ammoidin xan-thotoxin , ammidin imperatorin and majudin bergapten . All the three compounds are used in leucoderma. Maximum xanthotoxin content 1 is found in green fruits from Jammu. The 8-MOP, methoxypsoralen constituent of the weed is...

Bibliography

The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I, second revised edn., Ministry of Health, Govt. of India. 2003. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I., Vol I to IV 2004 , API , Ministry of Health, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Bartram's Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine, Marlowe amp Company, New York. 1998. The British Herbal Compendium, British Herbal Medicine Association. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, British Herbal Medicine Association. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Ram P. Rastogi...

Siddha Tamil Athimathuram

Action Demulcent, expectorant, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress, antidepressive, antiulcer, liver protective, estrogenic, em-menagogue, antidiabetic. Used in bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, catarrh, tuberculosis genitourinary diseases, urinary tract infections abdominal pain, gastric and duodenal ulcers, inflamed stomach, mouth ulcer. Also used for adrenocorticoid insufficiency. Key application In catarrh of the upper respiratory tract and...

Siddha Tamil Somamum Kodi Kalli

Plant insecticidal. The plant contains malic acid, suc-cinic acid, reducing sugar, surcosa, traces of tannin, an alkaloid, a phytos-terol, alpha-and beta-amyrins, lupeol and lupeol acetate and beta-sitosterol. The milky exudate from the stem contains 4.1 of caoutchouc. Coagulum contains caoutchouc 16, resins 68.1 and insolubles 15.9 . Related species, Sarcostemma bru-nonianum W. amp A. South India , known as Perumaattaan kodi in Tamil Nadu S. intermedium Decne...

Amomum aromaticum Roxb

Action Similar to that of A. subula-tum. The seeds yield on essential oil 1.01.2 containing cineole as the principal constituent. Chinese practitioners avoid the use of cardamom in conditions marked by symptoms of excessive heat. Unani Heel Kalaan, Qaaqule Kubaar. Siddha Tamil Peria Elam, Kattu Elam, Beraelam. Action Stomachic, antiemetic, an-tibilious, astringent, alexipharmic used for the treatment of indigestion, biliousness, abdominal pains, vomiting, in...

Siddha Tamil Kasakasa seeds

Narcotic, sedative, hypnotic, analgesic, sudorific, anodyne, antispasmodic. Crushed poppyheads were in use as a topical poultice for crippling pain in terminal diseases. Poppy seed nutritive, demulcent, emollient, spasmolytic, devoid of narcotic properties. Specific against obstinate constipation, also used in catarrh of the bladder. Poppy seed oil is also free from narcotic properties. Used against diarrhoea, dysentery and scalds. Opium contains isoquinoline...

Internet Resources of Herbal Medicine

AGRICOLA Agricultural Online Access Alternative Medicine Connection www.arxc.com Alternative Medicine Home Page, from the University of Pittsburg For WHO Herbal Monographs under Development, see entry for Alternative Medicine Home Page from the University of Pittsburg. Alternative Medicine, University of Texas American Botanical Council http www.herbalgram.org American Herbal Pharmacopoeia http www.herbal-aph.org American Herbalists Guild http www.americanherbalistsguild.com Andrew Weil's...

Divergent Plant Sources of Important Classical Herbs

Leptadenia reticulata Asclepiadaceae Marsdenia tenacissima Asclepiadaceae Naagakeshara Mesuaferrea Clusiaceae Paashaanabheda Bergenia ligulata Saxifragaceae Substitute Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae Priyangu Callicarpa macrophylla Verbenaceae Substitute Prunus mahaleb Rosaceae Prishniparni Uraria picta Fabaceae South India Dysoxylum malabaricum Meliaceae South India Premna herbacea Verbanaceae Bengal Picrasma quassioides Simarubaceae South India Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae South India...

Luffa cylindrica

L. pentandra Roxb. Habitat Cultivated throughout greater parts of India. English Smooth Luffa, Sponge-gourd, sponge Cucumber. Ayurvedic Dhaamaargava, Ma-haakoshtaki, Mahaajaalini, Raa-jakoshataki. Siddha Tamil Mozhukupeerankai, Pikku. Action Plant used against pharyngitis, rhinitis, mastitis, oedema, swellings and burns. Leaves used for chronic bronchitis. Leaf juice is given for amenorrhoea. Flowers used for treating migraine. Seeds alcoholic extract exhibited 9.80...

Narcissus tazetta Linn

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia. The rhizome is rich in sesquiter-penoids. The crude drug gave an oil yield 2.5 v w , which contains d-nardostachone, valeranone and jata-mansone as the major ketonic sesqui-terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats. Jatamansone was shown to exert...

About the Author CP Khare

Khare was born on December 18, 1932, and has been a herbalist for more than fifty years. He was born into a family of herbal physicians. He studied the original Ayurvedic texts and acquired first-hand knowledge of the cultivation and processing of herbs and their usage even before going to college. In 1952, he took up journalism. Since then he has edited and contributed many features on health and personal problems to various journals. He has been Director of India's largest magazine...

Important Herbs of Non Indian Origin used in Unani system of Medicine

Fungus grown on old pine trees in South and Central Europe A. Longa North America A. Indica India Iran, Baluchistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Nepal, Tibet Asia, Southern parts of Russia, Poland Upper Gangetic plains, Dehradun, Bihar plateau, Tropical and sub-tropical parts of India including the Himalayas and Andamans. A. adscendens Western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, Kumaon, Chamba Europe and the British Isles, naturalized in parts of North America England, Europe, North Africa, North America...

Standardized Extracts of Indian Herbs used in India

Powder Paste Alkaloids 0.15 , Tannins 2.4 -4 Powder Glycosides 15 , Alkaloids 1 Powder Paste Tannins 5 , Mucilage 10 -15 Powder Paste Alliin 1.5 -2.5 by HPLC Powder Paste Gel Gum Aloin 1.5 3 1 , Polysaccharides 50 200 1 Powder Paste Shagaol gt 4 by HPLC Powder Paste Andrographolides gt 10 Powder Paste Bacosides 15 -50 , Alkaloids 5 Powder Paste Boswellic acids gt 50 Powder Paste Polyphenols gt 45 by HPLC Powder Paste Asiaticosides gt 10 , Powder Paste Flavones gt 4 , Vol. Oil 1 Powder Acidity...

Piper attenuatum

Habitat Eastern tropical Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills and the Nilgiris. Action Root diuretic. Plant rubefacient used for muscular pains and headache. Several aristolactams have been reported from the aerial parts of the plant. Crotepoxide exhibited significant antitumour activity. Roots contain alkamides including piperine, piperlonguminine and guineensine.

Leea macrophylla Roxb

Habitat North-Eastern India and in Western parts of Deccan Peninsula. Folk Banachelt Maharashtra , Banachalit Bengal , Nalugu, Nellu Kerala . Action Leaves applied to wounds. Root tubers used for guineaworm. Plant a host of the Indian lac insect. Habitat Throughout hotter parts of India. Ayurvedic Hastikanda, Hasti-karna Palaasha Kekidandaa. Folk Hatkan, Dholsamudra, Haath, Kaan. Action Astringent, anodyne, styptic, antiseptic. Root tubers astringent, mucilaginous applied to wounds and sores...

Putranjiva roxburghii Wall

Hurusawa. Habitat Throughout tropical India, wild and cultivated as an avenue tree. English Child-life tree, Indian Amulet Plant, Spurious Wild Olive. Ayurvedic Putranjiva, Putrajivaka, Putrajiva, Yashtipushpa, Arth-saadhana Siddha Tamil Karupali Garbhadaa and Garbhakaraa are misleading synonyms. Action Fruit powered deseeded fruits are used against cough, cold and sprue. Rosaries of hard stones are used for protecting children from infections. Due to...

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India

In 1978, German Federal Health Agency now called the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices established an expert committee on herbal remedies called Commission E . The Commission E is composed of 24 members, including physicians, pharmacists, non-medical practitioners, pharmacologists, toxicolo-gists, biostatisticians, and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Fifty percent are experts from clinical therapeutic field. There are 13 full university professors on the...

Borreria articularis

Habitat Throughout India, as a weed in cultivated and sallow lands and pastures. Folk Ghanti-chi-bhaaji Maharashtra , Gatbhanjan, Satgathiyaa. Action Herb used in the treatment of headache. Root prescribed as a mouthwash in toothache. Leaf juice is given as an astringent in haemorrhoids. Seeds used as demulcent in diarrhoea and dysentery. The weed contains beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid and D-mannitol. It is rich in calcium and phosphorus. Isorham-netin, a flavonoid, is reported in the seeds.

Trachyspermum roxburghianum DC Craib

Benth. amp Hk f. Habitat Cultivated throughout India. Ayurvedic Ajamodaa, Ajamoda, Ayamoda, Ajmoja, Dipyaka. Action Seeds carminative, stomachic, stimulant, cardiac tonic. Used for dyspepsia, vomiting, hiccough, bronchitis, asthma, and pain in bladder also as an emmenagogue. The seeds yield the coumarins bergaptene, 7-methoxy-6-methyl cou-marin and umbelliferone. Beta-sitos-terol is also reported. Major constituent of the essential oil from the seeds are...

Unani Ood Saleeb Ood Gharqi

Action Root antispasmodic, sedative, smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilatory, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, em-menagogue, hepatoprotective. Flower used for diseases of mucous membranes, fissures, anal fissures associated with haemorrhoids, also for ailments of the respiratory tract, nervous conditions and skin diseases. Root used for arthritis, neuralgia, neurasthenia, migraine, epilepsy, allergic disorders, whooping cough and painful spasms. The herb gave monoterpene ester glucosides...

Sansevieria hyacinthoides

Habitat Native to Sri Lanka found along coastal regions of India from Bengal to Tamil Nadu. Ayurvedic Naagadamani related species also known as Muurvaa . Siddha Tamil Marul, Motta manji. Action See S. roxburghiana. Leaves and rhizomes are applied externally in high fever with delirium. Rhizomes diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant. The leaf contains aconitic acid the root yielded an alkaloid sansevierine 0.018 .

Siddha Tamil Parangi chakkai

Action Tubers used as alterative in venereal diseases, chronic skin diseases and rheumatic affections. Used as official sarsaparilla. China of homoeopathic medicine is Peruvian bark, not Smilax china. Sarsaparilla Smilax species is used in Oriental as well as in Western herbal for its alterative, gentle circulatory stimulant and mild testosterone activity. The root is known for its steroidal saponins. Pro-sapogenin-A of dioscin, dioscin, gracillin. Me-protogracillin, Me-protodioscin and its...

Tylophora indica

Synonym T. asthamatica Wight amp Arn. Habitat Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Peninsular India. English Emetic Swallow Wort, Indian or Country Ipecacuanha. Ayurvedic Antamuula, Muulini, Arkaparni. Siddha Tamil Nay Palai, Nangilaip-piratti. Action Leaves used for bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyl-tylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaem-pferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and...

Martynia annua Linn

Habitat Native of Mexico found throughout India. English Devil's Claw, Tiger Claw. Ayurvedic Kaakanaasikaa, Kaakaangi, Shirobal. Siddha Tamil Kakatundi, Thelko-dukkukai. Action Leaf used in epilepsy, also applied to tuberculous glands of the neck. Fruit anti-inflammatory. Ash of the fruit, mixed with coconut oil, is applied on burns. Seed oil applied on abscesses and for treating itching and skin affections. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn-dia recommends the seed for arresting greying of hair....

English Mongoose Plant

Gandha-naakuli is a wrong synonym. It is equated with Aristolochia indica. Folk Sarahati. Mungus-vel Maharashtra . Action Root bitter tonic. Leaves used for dressing ulcers. The roots contain starch, a resin and small amounts of a bitter amorphous alkaloid. Beta-sitosterol, 5-alpha-ergost-7-en-3-beta-ol and 5-alpha-ergost-8 14 -en-3 beta-ol as an ester have been identified in the root. Leaves and stems contain traces of hydrocyanic acid.

Astragalus sarcocola Dymock

Habitat The mountainous regions from Asia Minor to Iraq and Iran. Unani Anzaroot, Kohal Kirmaani Gum . Action Gum antirheumatic, aperient, anthelmintic, emollient. The rootbark yields alkaloids, atala-phylline and its N-methyl derivatives and atalaphyllidine, which have close structural similarities with the antitu-mour alkaloid, acronycine, and its co-geners. The rootbark also contains the limonoid, atalantin. The leaf juice forms an ingredient of a compound liniment used in hemiplegia. The...

Siddha Tamil Sodakku thakkali

Action Berries diuretic, aperient, alterative. Used for gout and urinary diseases. Quercetin 3-O-galactoside, isolated from the crude extract of the leaves, is reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone in carageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Physalis minima Linn. var indica C. B. Clarke is common weed in irrigated fields and bunds. The plant contains withasteroids, physalindicanols, withaminimin and withaphysalin, 3-O-glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin, in...

Ayurvedic Neelkanthi

Folk Ratapaati Kumaon , Khur-banti Punjab . Action Astringent, febrifugal given in intermittent fever , stimulant, aperient, diuretic. Used for the treatment of gout and rheumatism also for amenorrhoea. Juice of the leaves blood purifier. The powder is used for burns and boils. The leaves are used in fever as a substitute for cinchona. An aqueous extract of the leaves showed diuretic activity. An alkaloidal fraction showed stimulant action on the perfused frog heart. The plant exhibited...

Ayurvedic Dochunty Uchunti Sahadevi related sp

Action Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, styptic. The leaf is reported to contain stig-masterol 59.9 and beta-sitosterol 26.7 as major component of sterol faction. The dried flowering plant contains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycop-samine and echinatine. An aqueous extract of leaves is reported to show haemostatic activity. The plant extract exhibited muscle relaxant activity experimentally. The ethanolic extract 95 of roots possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties....