The fruiting plant

The development of the true fruit involves either the expansion of the ovary into a juicy succulent structure, or the tissues becoming hard and dry. In false fruits other parts, such as the inflorescence, e.g. pineapple and mulberry, and the receptacle, as in apple, become part of the structure

Parts Succulent Fruits

The succulent fruits are often eaten by animals, which help seed dispersal, and may also bring about chemical changes to break dormancy mechanisms (see p151). Some fruits (described as being dehiscent), release their seeds into the air. They do this either by an explosive method as seen in brooms and poppies; or by tiny feathery parachutes, seen in willow herb and groundsel. Dry fruits may rot away gradually to release their seeds by an indehiscent action. Different adaptations of fruit, many of which are of economic import ance, and the methods by which seeds are dispersed are summarized in Table 7.1 and illustrated in Figure 7.9.

The fruit is the protective and distributary structure for the seed and forms from the ovary after fertilization.

A false fruit is formed from parts other than, or as well as, the ovary wall.

Table 7.1 Fruits and the dispersal of seeds

True Fruits (formed from the ovary wall after fertilization):

Succulent (indehiscent)

Drupes

Cherry, plum Blackberry (collection of drupes)

Berries

Gooseberry, Marrow, banana

Dry indehiscent

Schizocarps

Sycamore

Samara

Trefoil

Lomentum

Hogweed

Cremocarb

Hollyhocks

Carcerulus

Acorn, rose, strawberry

Achenes (nuts)

Dry dehiscent

Capsules

Poppy, Violet, Campanula

Siliquas

Wallflowers, stocks

Siliculas

Shepherd's purse, honesty

Legumes

Pea, bean, lupin

Follicles

Delphinium, monkshood

False Fruits (formed from parts other than, or as well as, the ovary wall):

From inflorescence

Pineapple, mulberry

From receptable

Apple, pear

Method of seed dispersal

Type of fruit

Examples

Animals

Succulent

Elderberry, blackberry - eaten by birds

Mistletoe, yew - stick to beaks

Hooked

Burdock, goose-grass - catch on fur

Wind

Winged

Ash, sycamore, lime, elm

Parachutes

Dandelion, clematis, thistles

Censer (dry capsules)

Poppy, campion, antirrhinum

Explosion

Pods

Peas, lupins, gorse, vetches, geranium

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Responses

  • Lukas Drescher
    How false fruits formed?
    8 years ago
  • JAMES BEALS
    What is dehiscent and indehiscent?
    7 years ago
  • MANU
    What are the parts of a lychee fruit?
    7 years ago
  • dionisia
    How does succulent fruits dispersed?
    7 months ago

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