All nutrients play a part in all nutrient cycles simply because all organisms need the same range of nutrients to be active. Normally there are adequate quantities of nutrients, with the exception of carbon or nitrogen, which are needed in relatively large quantities. A shortage of nitrogenous material would lead to a hold-up in the nitrogen cycle, but would also slow down the carbon cycle, i.e. the decomposition of organic matter is slowed because the micro-organisms concerned suffer a shortage of one of their essential nutrients. A useful way of expressing the relative amounts of the two important plant foods is in the carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio.
Plant material has relatively wide C:N ratios, but those of microorganisms are much narrower. This is because micro-organisms utilize about three quarters of the carbon in plants during decomposition as an energy source. The carbon utilized this way is released as carbon dioxide, whereas, usually, all the nitrogen is incorporated in the microbial body protein. This concentrates the nitrogen in the new organism that is living on the plant material.
Sometimes the C:N ratio is so wide that some nitrogen is drawn from the soil and 'locked up' in the microbial tissue. This is what happens when straw (and similar fibrous or woody material such as wood chips and bark) with a ratio of 60:1 is dug into the soil (see Table 18.1). For example, if one thousand 12 kg bales of straw are dug into one hectare of land then the addition to the soil will be 12 000 kg of straw containing 4800 kg of carbon and 80 kg of nitrogen. Three-quarters of the carbon (3600 kg) is utilized for energy and lost as carbon dioxide and a quarter (1200 kg) is incorporated over several months into microbial tissue. Microbial tissue has a C:N ratio of about 8:1, which means that by the time the straw is used up some 150 kg of nitrogen is locked up with the 1200kg of carbon in the micro-organisms. Since there was only 80kg of nitrogen in the straw put on the land, the other 70 kg has been 'robbed' from the soil. This nitrogen is rendered unavailable to plants ('locked up') until the micro-organisms die and decompose. To ensure rapid decomposition or to prevent a detrimental effect on crops the addition of straw must be accompanied by the addition of nitrogen.
Nitrogen is released during decomposition if the organic material has a C:N ratio narrower than 30:1, such as young plant material, or with nitrogen-supplemented plant material such as farmyard manure (FYM).
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