Key contacts

NSW Agriculture has been responsible for most of the recent research leading to the development of suitable varieties and offers advice. Other state departments of agriculture or primary Industries also have advisory officers to assist. Peter Milthorpe Agricultural Research and Advisory Station PO Box 300 Condobolin NSW 2877 Phone (02) 6895 2099 Fax (02) 6895 2688 email Mr (Bob) R. L. Dunstone Jojoba Science P L 11 Gregson Place CURTIN ACT 2605 Phone fax (02) 6281 1754 Email Australian Jojoba...

Financial information

The formula for expenses (Table 1) uses a site comprising 100 beds, 18 m long by 1.5 m wide, which have been planted intensively (50 x 150 mm spacings) with 20 kg of seed. Shade is erected singly over each bed on a structure of posts and wire. The cost of the shade is listed as a total expense but the shade should last for three crops. Mulch is spread at the rate of three bales per bed. Soaker hoses are used for irrigation and use of fungicides and soil additives is minimal. Costs for land,...

Principal markets

Supermarket chains A range of climates, of produce and a range of quality-assured products (packaged or bunched). Suppliers are competing in a small Major supermarket sales, 2003 Fresh Herbs & Spices Major supermarket sales, 2003 Presentation types marketplace that must be supplied all year round. The grower manager deals with supermarket buyers. Terms and conditions are negotiated. Competition is fierce and prices are governed by supermarket policies. Individuals and companies dealing with...

Markets and marketing

Medicinal herbs have been traded around the world for many years. The botanical (herbal) raw materials are the plant parts roots, barks, leaves and stems, flowers, seeds fruits, and resins. These materials are presented in a whole or cut form and sifted to a consistently even particle size. Market prices are usually determined by supply and demand but generally tend to be stable. Most traded European herbs are priced at source in the range US 2.00 to US 6.00 kg. However, prices paid by end...

Harvesting and postharvest

Harvesting is the most costly aspect of caper production since it is done manually. Bud production is continuous throughout the summer and a harvester will visit the same plant every eight to 12 days resulting in around 12 harvests per season. To avoid the heat of the day, buds are collected in the morning. Harvest frequency has a direct bearing on the final size and quality of the product, and determining the optimum time interval is influenced by the market one is picking that is, smaller...

Key statistics

Managed jojoba plantations in Australia have increased to over 400 ha of clonal material planted on 25 farms. Seed production has approximately doubled in each of the past five years to about 48t. Production will continue to increase rapidly as the stands mature and new plantings reach production age. The industry will now rely on export markets for its products. makes it a relatively easy crop to integrate with existing land use practices, as well as offering a reliable return to supplement...

Pest and disease control

The caper bush is not very sensitive to pest damage and insects do not appear to be a limiting problem. Nonetheless, it is related to the brassica family and attractive to the white cabbage moth. The caper moth also damages caper leaves. Both these insects appear not to harm the flower buds but, if left unchecked, damage to the leaves would influence the general vigour of the plant. An advantage to the regular hand-harvesting of buds that takes place is that pests are readily observed and can...

Production requirements and agronomy

The herbs and spices category encompasses a large number of species, ranging from temperate to tropical crops, that are grown in enterprises all over Australia parsley in Tasmania, rosemary in Victoria, lemon grass in the Northern Territory, green peppercorns in north Queensland, and so on, with concentrations of growers around all major cities and population areas. Given the range of climatic conditions in Australia, it can only be said that the best yields and economic returns will be...

Production requirements

David Cox Wild Flowers

Capers are native to the Mediterranean and, as a general rule, they can be found in regions where olives and almonds are grown. The caper bush requires a semiarid climate. Mean annual temperatures in areas under cultivation are over 14 C and rainfall varies from 200mm year in Spain to 680 on the island of Salina in Italy. A rainy spring and a long, hot, dry summer The caper bush can withstand temperatures of over 40 C in summer but it is sensitive to frost during its growing period. It is a...

Harvest

Medicinal plants should be harvested during the appropriate season to ensure the presence of active constituents within the herb. The herb crop should be harvested at the optimal time of day and climatic conditions, avoiding periods of heavy dew, excessive humidity or rain. Damaged plants or plant parts and extraneous plant materials and soil must be excluded. Freshly harvested plant material must be delivered as quickly as possible to the primary processing facility, to prevent the build-up...

Key references

Ginseng Grown Hydroponically

Ginseng Growing in Australia. Gembrook Organic Ginseng Pty Ltd., Victoria. Lee, F.C. 1992 Fads About Ginseng the Elixir of Life. Hollym. Persons, W.S. American Ginseng Green Gold. Available from Gembrook Organic Ginseng Pty Ltd., Victoria. Wills, R., et al. 2001 Production of High-quality Ginseng, Pub. no 01 170, RIRDC, Canberra. Fred Hosemans - Australia's first ginseng grower, and husband of the author. Fred Hosemans - Australia's first ginseng grower, and husband of the...

Agronomy

Three cultivation methods are recognised artificial shade, woods grown and wild simulated. Each growing method produces different results and consequently different market prices. Approximately 95 of the world's ginseng production occurs under artificial shade. Wild simulated is the cheapest growing method and produces the highest returns per dried weight yield. Soil testing for pH and nutrient levels should be done as part of site selection and bed preparation. Minimal tillage should be...

About the author

Max Jongebloed

Max Jongebloed was instrumental in starting the broad-acre seed production of coriander in Australia in 1978, when seed was brought from Thailand and sown in various regions of South Australia. As the General Manager of Seedco Australia Cooperative Limited formerly, the South Australian Seedgrowers Cooperative Limited from 1987 until 2000, he initiated many years of research on coriander, fenugreek and other spices in conjunction with the Waite Agricultural Research Institute University of...

Harvest and postharvest

All varieties of coriander must be harvested when the seeds are light brown to brown and the plant stems are brown and starting to become dry. Open-front headers are recommended. Crop losses by seed head shattering can occur if growers wait until stems are completely dry. Windrowing has been used but the windrows must be heavy and left to lie deep in the stalks otherwise wind can move them across the field. Dessication has not been used with success. Dryland yields of 1-1.5 mt ha are common and...

Storage

Packaged dried medicinal herbs are best stored in a dark, well-ventilated building, off the floor, where daily temperature variations are limited and where the maximum temperature does not exceed 25 C. To prevent potential insect infestation due to the hatching of eggs, and assuming fumigation is not an option, packaged medicinal herbs should be frozen at 18 C for a minimum period of three days. Dandelion root and angelica root are particularly susceptible. Store is on pallets, away from...