I'd be hard pressed to name a shrub that I like better than blueberry (Vaccinium species). As an ornamental plant, it offers small white flowers in spring, glossy green leaves in summer, and spectacular crimson foliage in fall. As an edible fruit, it can't be beat for fresh eating, pies, pancakes, dessert sauce, and jam.
Blueberries grow in Zones 3 to 10, but the species and best varieties vary from one extreme to the other. Choose one of these three species to suit your climate:
Flower buds, which appear larger and rounder than leaf buds, form in the summer the year before the plants bloom and are most abundant on the 2- to 5-year-old woody stems, called canes. Prune in late winter to remove the oldest and most unproductive canes, leaving the most vigorous 15 to 18 canes.
✓ Rabbiteye blueberry (V. ashei) grows in the warmer Zones 7 through 9. Growing up to 10 feet tall, the varieties of this species have thicker-skinned berries. You need to plant two different but compatible varieties to get fruit. Good companions include Beckyblue and Bonitablue or Powderblue and Tifblue.
Blueberries belong to a group of plants that have very specific soil needs, including lots of decomposed organic matter and an acidic pH of 4.5 to 5.2. They grow where azaleas and rhododendrons naturally thrive, but you can also alter your soil with acidifying peat moss and sulfur to accommodate their needs. It takes at least 6 months to a year or more for amendments to significantly lower soil pH, so plan ahead, and test the soil before planting. See Chapter 5 for more on soil amendments and pH.
All blueberries have shallow roots and need moist, well-drained soil. Mix 1/2 cubic foot of peat moss per plant into the soil at planting time. Cover the soil around the shrubs with organic mulch — such as pine needles, shredded oak leaves, or hardwood bark — to maintain the soil moisture and prevent weeds. Keep the soil moist throughout the growing season. Avoid deep cultivation, which can damage the shrubs' roots.
Blueberries have relatively few serious pests or diseases, but good sanitation practices are a must. Mummy berry fungus causes trouble in some areas, spreading from fallen fruit. You can prevent other fungus diseases by pruning, to encourage air circulation through the plants, and by keeping the foliage dry. Birds are the most serious pests; cover the plants completely with bird netting before the berries turn blue.
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Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.