Latent bud A bud that has been produced normally, which for various reasons will not develop further unless stimulated by some unusual circumstance.
, Lateral On the side. A lateral bud or root is on the side of a stem or root as distinct from being at the top or the base. Layer A stem that is in the process of being layered. Also applied to the rooted plant at the time of and just after separating from the parent.
Leader shoot The shoot that is dominating growth in a stem system, and is usually uppermost.
Leaf-bud cutting see page 62. Leaf cutting see page 79. Leaf-fall The season when a leaf has been isolated from its stem by the development » of a corky abscission layer. Leaf-petiole cutting see page 80. Leaf slashing see page 82. Leaf square see page 83. Leg A single stem that is developed to raise the main head of a tree or shrub. Light The glass or plastic, normally enclosed j(by wood or metal, used for covering a cold frame or closed case.
Line out To plant out young plants or cuttings f fairly close together in a straight line in the open ground.
Liner An established newly propagated plant that is ready for planting out or growing on in a nursery bed.
Long Tom A pot about half as deep again as a normal pot. ^Mallet cutting see page 63. V|Marcottage see Air layering.
Mature A plant that can produce flowers and, Ihence, reproduce sexually. ^Midrib cutting see page 81. Mist unit see page 7. Modified stem see page 42. Monocot leaf see page 84. Monocotyledon A flowering plant that produces only one seed leaf. (Mound layering An alternative term for Jstooling. ^
jMycorrhiza The beneficial association be-ween some fungi and the roots of some slants, in which the fungi fulfil many of the 'functions of the plant's root system and in ■return receive carbohydrates as food.
Node The place where a leaf joins the plant's stem and subtends an axillary bud.
Nurse graft A rootstock that supports a scion until it roots itself. A grafting technique often used in the production of, for example, clematis, cotoneaster and wisteria.
Offset see page 52.
Peat pellet see page 11.
Perennation The survival of vegetative plant parts during the dormant season.
Pericarp The wall of a fruit.
Pesticide A chemical used to kill a pest; a general term to cover insecticide, vermicide, acarictde, etc.
Photosynthesis The process by which a green plant is able to make carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide, using light as an energy source and chlorophyll as the catalyst.
Plumule The primitive shoot in an embryo.
Polarity The state of having two opposite poles, that is a top and a bottom.
Polythene tunnel see page 7.
Presser board A piece of flat wood with a handle used to firm and level compost.
Prick out see page 22.
Propagator see page 7.
Prothallus The sexual generation of a fern.
Radicle The primitive root in an embryo, later becoming the first seedling root.
Reaction The degree of acidity or alkalinity in some soil or compost. Reaction is measured on the pH scale, on which pH7.0 is neutral;
lower figures indicate increasing acidity, whereas higher figures indicate increasing alkalinity.
Regeneration The development of any missing parts on propagated material (for example roots on a stem cutting) to make up a complete plant.
Relative humidity see Humidity.
Respiration The process by which a plant liberates energy for its growth processes.
Rhizome see page 44.
Ripe wood Almost hard wood.
Root cutting see pages 38-40.
Rooting hormone see page 13.
Rose budding see page 92.
Runner see page 52.
Scale leaf A leaf modified in the form of a scale, often occurring underground on a modified stem.
Scaling a bulb see page 48.
Scarification see page 32.
Scion The portion (a single bud or stem)
grafted on to a rootstock. Once established, it becomes the major part of the stem system on the new plant.
Scooping see page 49.
Seedling rootstock Rootstock that has been produced from seed as opposed to rootstock that has been propagated vegetatively. Seed lot A collection of seeds from a particular plant or plants.
Semi-hard wood An alternative term for semi-ripe wood.
Semi-ripe wood cutting see page 67. Serpentine layering An alternative term for compound layering.
Sessile Stalkless. A sessile leaf has its midrib and leaf blade attached directly to a plant's stem at a node.
Shield-budding see page 91.
Side-veneer grafting see page 90.
Side-wedge grafting see page 89.
Simple layering see page 54.
Softwood cutting see page 64.
Soil block see page 11.
Spit depth The depth of the blade on a normal digging spade; about 10 in.
Splice graft An alternative term for whip grafting.
Station sowing The individual sowing of seeds at a predetermined spacing in the site in which they will grow until pricking out or harvesting.
Stem cutting see page 61.
Stolon A general term that is often used to cover a wide range of modified stems or parts of modified stems. Because of its confused usage, it has been ignored in this book as a definitive term.
Stooling see page 58.
Stratification see page 33.
Strike off To remove excess compost above the rim of a pot or seed tray, using a presser board, a piece of wood, edge of the palm or fingers.
Sub-shrub cutting see page 76. Sub-terminal shoot A shoot immediatdy behind a leader shoot that usually grows actively but not quite as vigorously as a leader shoot.
Succulent A condition in certain plants that has developed as a response to a lack of readily available fresh water. A succulent plant is capable of storing relatively large quantities of water.
Sucker A shoot growing either from a stem or a root at or about ground level. Systemic Capable of permeating the whole of a plant.
Terminal bud The bud thatterminates growth at the top of a stem and remains in a resting stage during the dormant period. Tip layering see page 57. Top working The grafting of a rootstock at standard or half-standard height. Transpiration The process by which a plant naturally loses water, mainly through its leaves.
Trench layering An alternative term for etiolation layering.
Tuber see page 43.
Tuberous root see page 41.
Turgid Plant material that contains its full complement of water and is not therefore under stress.
Union The join where a rootstock and scion have been grafted so they produce common and continued growth.
Vegetative Any part or condition of a plant not associated with flowering. A vegetative shoot, for example, does not produce flowers;
nor will a juvenile plant.
Veneer grafting see page 90.
Viability A measurement of those seeds that are alive at any one moment.
Water stress A variable condition of wilting in which plant material is losing water faster than it can take it up. Wedge grafting see page 88. Whip-and-tongue grafting see pages 86-7. Whip graft A very basic apical graft made with a sloping cut on the rootstock and a matching cut on the scion. It is difficult to tie satisfactorily.
Whorl A variable group (three or more) of flowers or leaves that arises in a ring from the same point on a stem. Worked Grafted. Wounding see page 13.
To propagate plants successfully, it is necessary to have a clean and tidy working area, efficient and effective tools and kit and to follow a standardized procedure. Failure in any part of the system leads to frustration and, more importantly, delays that will reduce the probability of success.
Most important of the gardener's special tools and equipment for plant propagation are a sharp knife, a pair of secateurs, a dibber, suitable compost and a selection of pots and seed trays. Not all tools or fancy bits of equipment will necessarily enhance the success of propagation, but the important ones will because they make the gardener's job easier, and if the job is easier it often succeeds more readily.
The use of suitable tools gives the plant material the very best start. To avoid tearing and crushing, for example, always use a shalrp knife or razor blade and a clean sheet of glass when preparing a softwood cutting for planting. If the plant material is damaged, it will die and become a site for possible rots to infect the cutting. By the same token it is important
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