Plant Propagation

Idllni in-< hiof Christopher Brickell ledum al t ditor Kenneth A. Beckett frlllor loanna Chisholm Art 'ditor Celia Welcomme Dnsixncrs Sean Keogh, Alan Shorrock I (lltoridl assistant Margaret Little I In* Royal Horticultural Society's Encyclopaedia of I'r.ic tic < il Gardening < Q Mitchell Beazley Publishers Limited 1979 I ho Royal Horticultural Society's Encyclopaedia of J'liictical Gardening Plant Propagation '(D Mitc hell Beazley Publishers Limited 1979 All rights reserved Rrproduction...

Index

Abies species 34-5 varieties 90 Abutilon indoor 66 outdoor 64-5 Acacia 32, 34-5, 38-40 Acaena 50-1 Acantholimon 50-1, 77 Acanthus 26, 38-40 Acer species 28, 34-5 Japanese maples 89 Tree maple varieties 59, 91 Achillea alpine 66 Achimenes 43 Acidanthera 45 Acorus 50-1 Actinidia 64-5, 67 Adenophora 24 Adiantum 27, 50 Adonis alpine 24 Aechmea 52 Aesculus species 34-5, 38-40 varieties and hybrids 89, 91 Aethionema 66 Agapanthus 50-1 Agave 52 Ageratum 25 Aichryson 66 Ailanthus 34-5, 38-40 Ajuga...

Leafpetiole cuttings

The simplest and most reliable way to produce new plants from leaf cuttings is to use a complete leaf with its stalk. The disadvantage of this method is that it develops only a few new plants from each leaf. Rotting and disease are the main causes of failure so always use clean tools, containers and composts. Leaf-petiole cuttings can be taken at any time of year provided a new, fully expanded leaf is available. Make up a cuttings compost of equal parts sifted peat and grit. Fill a container...

Grafting Whipandtongue

Grafting is a technique of joining two parts of different plants together in such a way that they will unite and continue their growth as one plant. One part, called the scion, is usually a stem from the plant to be propagated. This is grafted on to a root system from another plant, which is called the rootstock (also, the stock or understock). All the various techniques of joining plants are called grafting, although, when buds only are joined to the rootstock, it is sometimes called budding....

Care and maintenance

Secateurs, more than most tools, require constant maintenance if they are to remain effective. After each session wipe the blades with a solvent such as petrol or carbon tetrachloride and or fine emery paper to clean off resins, plant juices and residues that otherwise may quickly impair the cutting edges. Then wipe the blades with light oil to prevent rusting, and similarly oil all the moving parts to keep them in good working order. The cutting blade will need periodical sharpening to...

Making a clean cut

When using secateurs it is important to notice where the cut is actually being made the anvil blade is often quite thick and it is not always possible to see the actual cut when making it. Also, ensure that any cut is made with the anvil blade away from the proposed cut surface so any bruising is not incorporated in the propagated material. To make a clean cut, decisively squeeze the secateur blades together. Never force secateurs to make a cut as this merely bends the blades, damages the hinge...

Rhizomes

A rhizome is a stem that grows laterally at about the soil surface, although in some plants it is underground. Normally, a rhizome stores food, but the degree to which it does this varies from species to species. A rhizome is a perennial, and it is propagated artificially by division at an opportune season of the year in most cases this is after flowering, when the rhizome is about to extend and produce new roots. It has two ways of growing. In one, typified by the German or bearded iris, a...

Semiripe woods

During the late summer, annual stem growth slows down and plant stems become harder. Cuttings taken at this time are called semi-ripe cuttings. As they are thicker and harder than softwood cuttings, they are more capable of survival. However they are still susceptible to the same problems of water loss because the cuttings carry leaves. Semi-ripe cuttings have relatively high levels of stored food and can therefore survive and produce roots in poor light. Many deciduous plants, such as...

Leaf squares

Any leaf that will regenerate vegetatively can be propagated from leaf squares, but this method is normally used only for plants with big leaves and especially for Begonia rex varieties. Its main advantage is that it produces numerous plantlets from a single leaf. This method of propagation produces small pieces of cut leaf that are prone to rotting. Therefore clean, sterile tools and equipment should be used at all times and scrupulous, hygienic measures should be observed. Fill a clean...

Stooling

Stooling is an entirely artificial system of propagating plants by layering, because a plant is grown just to develop new plants, which it will do year after year. It is a technique that is principally used to produce specialized rootstocks that control the vigour and size of a tree, especially fruit trees. However it can be employed on any plant that will respond to severe annual pruning. Plant a rooted layer, cutting or seedling in well-cultivated ground and label it. Establish for one...

J The developing seed

This is known as pricking out or potting on. f ill a container with John Innes No. 1 A compost or a compost of similar structure r , (see page 12), and firm to the base with the k tips of the fingers. Strike off compost level r with the rim. Lightly firm with presser board ) so that the compost is in below the rim . of the container, which is now prepared. f Water the seedlings then loosen them by knocking the old container so that the compost comes away from...

Offsets Runners

An offset is a plantlet that has developed laterally on a stem either above or below ground the stem arises from a crown bud and usually carries no other buds. Most plants, such as sempervivums, that produce offsets first grow a miniature plant with only minimal roots. A root system will not fully develop until late in the growing season. To speed up this process of propagation, pull away the offset from its parent, usually in spring. Either plant out in the garden or pot it up, using a...

Hard woods

A plant is sometimes needed that has a single stem, or leg, at the bottom and many stems, or branches, farther up the plant. To grow a plant with this characteristic, a hardwood cutting needs to be longer than the normal 6 in and have more than 1 in exposed above the ground. However, a longer cutting may encourage further buds to develop lower down the stem, so losing the desired single stem. . To prevent any branching down the stem, cut out all but the top three buds at leaf-fall. Cut out the...

Shieldbudding

Horizontal Budding Branches

Shield-budding, or T-budding, is a traditional way to propagate rosaceous plants by grafting. A bud from the plant to be propagated is placed behind the bark of the rootstock so that the back of the bud and the exposed surface of the rootstock wood are in contact. However, this technique can only be carried out when the bark of the rootstock lifts easily this is normally between May and August. Select a suitable rootstock, either a seedling or a one-year-old layer. Plant it in some open ground...

Root cuttings ixr

Root Cuttings Guide

Ml KUAC tOUS HANTS At jnlhut Am huM When propagating plants from root cuttings it is vital to understand how seasonality affects the capacity of root cuttings to produce stem buds. The subject of on and off seasons appears to have been virtually unconsidered until the mid-twentieth century. However, recent research has established that fluctuations in the ability of roots to produce stem buds do exist and that it is pointless to propagate while the plant's response is inhibited by adverse...

Apicalwedge

Wedge grafting is perhaps the easiest way to join two plants as only simple carpentry is required, and it is used to propagate a wide variety of shrubs and ornamental trees. . In mid-winter, collect some stems with all their previous season's growth from a plant with suitable scion material. Bundle these together and then heel them 6 in deep into the ground. This will prevent the scions drying out, and will keep them cool and retard their development. Label them clearly. In late winter early...

Making a stem cutting

What Double Leaf Bud Cutting

Leaf-bud cuttings can be taken from any type of stem soft wood, green wood, semi-ripe wood, hard wood or evergreen. Each c utting consists of a leaf, a bud in its leaf axil and a very short piece of stem. The leaf supplies food to support the cutting and the regenerative processes the bud provides the basis for the new stem system and the piece of stem is where the first roots are produced. To be successful, the gardener must use stems that have a high capacity to produce roots. Therefore,...

The developing seed

1 Remove the glass and sheet of paper as soon as the seedlings appear. Place in a well-lit area. 2 Spray seedlings regularly with water, but do not allow compost to become waterlogged. 3 Water in a fungicide to prevent or contain any outbreak of damping-off diseases. requirement, which can only be satisfied by a well-aerated environment within the compost. All growth processes within the seed are chemical reactions activated by the addition of water. To develop successfully, the seed needs an...

Preparing a seedbed

Preparing Seed Bed

An open ground seedbed is best for tree and shrub seedling propagation. Although it is quite possible to sow seeds in seed trays or pans dwarf pots containing compost, the quality of the compost will inevitably deteriorate and germination may be impaired after a considerable time outdoors. After germination, the seedlings should be left to establish for a growing season before transplanting, and the restrictive volume of a seed tray or pan may not allow adequate space for root or seedling...

Subshrubs

Some woody, low-growing plants, such as Salvia, that are often treated .is herbaceous plants are called sub-shrubs. Most of them root readily and can easily be propagated from stem cuttings taken in late summer. Prune the parent plant during the dormant season to encourage strong, vigorous shoots to develop. Prepare the soil in a cold frame by digging deeply. Add grit if necessary to ensure it is free draining. Cut off some shoots with all their current season's growth in late summer usually...

Conifers

Label the container then water with a fine rose. Place in a closed case or mist unit. The cuttings will root within three to four months. Harden off and pot on in spring. It is easier, but slower, to propagate conifer cuttings in a cold frame. Prepare the soil in the propagation bed before taking the cuttings. Raise the level of the soil in the cold frame to within 6-8 in of the lid. This will maintain an equable humidity and temperature for the cuttings. Pull a...

The correct use of fertilizer

It is important to ensure that sufficient nutrients are available to young plants. If composts are correctly formulated they should contain an adequate amount. However, seedlings, for example, are germinated in a compost containing only phosphate as soon as they begin to show green leaves they will benefit from feeding with nitrogen and potash to encourage growth. Although it is possible for the gardener to make up his own soluble feed it is far simpler and much more reliable to use one of the...

Sciarid flies

The movement of these very small black-bodied flies is more eye-catching than the flies themselves. They are a relatively new phenomenon and are probably associated with the increasing use of peat-based com- posts. The adults are attracted by peat, especially when it is wet, and they will lay their eggs in it. The small white grubs that hatch then proceed to eat whatever is available in this situation usually the young, freshly succulent roots of a cutting or seedling. Most damage is caused...

Sideveneer

Traditionally, side-veneer grafts have been used to propagate conifers, but they are now often carried out on any plant suitable for side-grafting. The join resulting from this method of grafting is slightly more upright than one from a side-wedge graft see page 89 . Conifers, when cut, exude resin and, although this can be reduced by drying off the rootstocks before grafting, the resin will still adhere to a knife blade and so impair its efficiency and cutting edge. Therefore, keep the knife...

Potting composts for growing on young plants

The formulation of composts for the establishment and growing on of young plants follows on from seed composts in much the same pattern. It is necessary to prepare a compost that allows the development of a root system contains adequate water to support the plants and sufficient nutrients not to check growth has a suitable acidity alkalinity status and does not dry out too easily. Nowadays such composts are based on the use of peat, although traditionally the John Innes concepts were based on...

Sowing herbaceous seeds

Compost Presser Board

Seeds should be sown in pans dwarf pots or seed trays, depending on the quantity of seed available. If the seeds are slow to germinate, fill the container with a loam-based compost, which will maintain its structure over a long period despite being exposed to natural weather conditions. Peat-based compost will suffice for seeds sown in spring. Firm the compost to the corners and the base of container then strike off the compost. 4 Firm the seeds gently into the compost with a presser board. 5...

Four methods of watering by capillary action

Choose a tray with raised sides and good drainage. Line it with polythene sheeting. Stab holes in the applied. To gain experience use a minimum number of pot types and sizes, and as far as possible stick to one compost formula so that experience of these limited conditions will improve watering technique. Watering from above with a rose, attached either to a watering can or a hose, will give a light rate of application. This helps prevent severe caking of the compost and so enhances penetration...

Red spider mites

These are not, in fact, insects but are related to the spider. They have eight legs and are capable of spinning webs. Most of them are minute and are comparatively difficult to see, but because they normally occur in such vast quantities their collective action is readily apparent. A typical sign of their presence is for a yellow mottling to appear on some leaves. This discoloration gradually turns a rusty brown and is followed by a greyish sheen of web formation. It is in the propagating...

Glasshouse whiteflies

These are one of the most troublesome pests of plants grown under glass. The small, white, moth-like adults and the greenish-white scale-like larvae that occur on lower leaf surfaces both feed by sucking sap, and they excrete a sugary substance known as honey-dew. This makes the foliage sticky and allows the growth of a black, sooty mould. The larvae are fairly tolerant of most insecticides, unlike the adults which can be controlled by insecticides containing pyrethrum, biores-methrin or...

Knives

Without doubt the most important piece of equipment needed by a gardener wishing to propagate plants is a knife. Choosing it is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions to make, as so much depends on what sort of work it will be required to carry out. For most tasks, a medium-weight knife with a sharp carbon-steel blade is best. For grafting, select a fairly heavy knife. A budding knife has a spatula end for prising open flaps of bark. It is a useful luxury an ordinary propagation knife is...

Exotic trees and shrubs

Tree Growing From Seed Tree

The trees and shrubs treated on this page are grown more for interest than for the fruit, if any, that they may produce. Their methods of propagation are similar, except that of avocado. Fill a pot with seed compost and with the finger-tips firm gently to the corners and the base of the pot. With a presser board strike off the compost level with the rim, then press the compost to -f in below the rim. Sow the seeds and push them into the compost with a presser board. Cover the seed with its own...

Peat pellets and soil blocks

Seed Soil Block Plant

As an alternative to pots and trays it is possible to substitute a system that obviates their use the idea simply being to plant out or pot on the entire unit. This is achieved by eliminating a pot altogether, either by using a peat compost, compressed into a pellet and contained within a net, that swells up when soaked with water, or by compressing the compost into blocks. These systems are useful, very effective and reduce the ultimate root disturbance to a minimum, which means the growth of...

Pricking out

For germination of tree and shrub seeds see page 35. To keep seeds moist and warm, cover the container with a sheet of glass so that water condenses on the glass and falls back into the compost. To minimize temperature fluctuations cover the glass with a sheet of paper. As soon as the seedlings emerge, both paper and glass should be removed. Spray the seedlings regularly with water and place them in a well-lit area, out of strong direct sunlight to avoid scorching. Spray germinating...

Seed trays

When dealing with relatively large numbers of seedlings or cuttings, as happens often in the production of bedding plants, a tray may be a more suitable container than a pot. Traditionally a seed tray is madeof soft wood and its dimensions are 14 in by in and, according to its required usage, either 2 in or 2 in deep. These trays are now relatively expensive to purchase and their expected life is fairly short as they rot easily. However, they have the distinct advantage of being firm and rigid....

Leaves

Asplenium Bulbiferum

Some plants mostly house plants that belong to Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae and Cesneriaceae have the capacity to develop plantlets on their leaves. This is a simple and efficient means of propagation, and it can occur in either of two ways by naturally growing foliar embryos, or by artificially induced plantlets from leaf cuttings. Foliar embryos are the result of a highly specialized process that occurs in certain plants, such as the mother-of-thousands and pig-a-back plant. In this process the...

How this book is arranged

The concept and approach in this book is entirely my own, based on my experience gained over the past 20 years evolving different systems of plant propagation and teaching both horticultural students and amateur gardeners. My aim has been to try to present propagation techniques in their logical sequence, in seven separate sections. For example, I have placed layering in the same section as stem cuttings as they are both ways of inducing roots on a stem. Until now, plant propagation has often...

Leaf slashing

Begonia Cut Leaf Along Vein

Plants that do not have a leaf with a central midrib and lateral veins but possess a more netted veining are not easy to propagate from leaf cuttings. Certain plants, however, have leaf veins that are capable of generating a new plant, and these can be propagated by cutting through the veins of the leaf so that plantlet development is induced but the leaf itself remains entire. Because of the size of their leaves this technique is particularly suitable for varieties of Begonia rex. Clean all...

Compost for germinating seedlings

The composition of a compost for seedling germination does not differ greatly from that produced for cuttings, except that a little more attention needs to be paid to the nutrient and chemical aspects. The basic components are peat and sand and for germination pure and simple this is sufficient. However if the seedlings are to remain in the compost for some time, add loam to act as a buffer in holding nutrients and controlling drying out. The amount of sterilized loam required need not be great...

Soft woods

Woody Cuttings

Soft wood is the most immature part of a stem, and, when propagating, it is the most difficult kind of cutting to keep alive. However, soft wood does have the highest capacity of all kinds of stems to produce roots the younger and the more immature the cutting, the greater will be its ability to develop roots, and so propagate successfully. Soft stem growth is produced continuously at the tip of any stem during the growing season. As it matures, the stem gradually hardens and becomes woody. The...

Tuberous roots

Begonia Plant With Tuberous Roots

Some herbaceous perennial plants die back to a crown of buds each dormant season, and their roots are modified to store food. These specialized swollen roots are described as tuberous roots. They can be distinguished from modified stems by their structure and from root cuttings by their inability to produce adventitious buds on isolated roots and so grow a new plant. There are two basic kinds of tuberous roots those that develop annually, such as on dahlias, and those that are perennial and...

Seeds

Tilia Platyphyllos Seed

The successful propagation of plants from rds is a highly improbable process con-i lering the vast number of seeds produced l gt y the parent plant and the relatively small number of plants that survive to maturity under natural circumstances. The gardener, therefore, must recognize all the possible limitations to success, and attempt to reduce or eliminate these and so produce an acceptable crop. Nevertheless, for the gardener, the technique of propagating plants from seed is a very worthwhile...

Midrib cuttingsLateral vein cuttings

Lateral Vein Leaf Cuttings

gt ro i g lt tit'il Iiuiii ImI inldill culliiiK A leaf-midrib is the extension of a leaf-stalk, and it is possible to propagate from leaf-midrib cuttings in the same way as it is from leaf-stalk petiole cuttings. Leaf-midrib cuttings can be used for any leaves that have a single central vein, and it is a particularly successful technique with Streptocarpus. Before taking cuttings, ensure all tools and equipment are scrupulously clean. Disease can be a major problem if care is not taken when...

Foliar embryos

Establishment Plantlets

A few plants are capable of developing isolated groups of simple cells in certain areas of their leaves. As a result these cells, or foliar embryos, are capable of developing into new plantlets. Given certain growing conditions some of these plants, such as Mitella, have foliar embryos that develop naturally into plantlets. Other plants such as Cardamine will only respond in this way if the leaves are separated from the parent plant. The position on the leaf of these embryos is fixed according...

How to apply rooting hormones

Stem Cutting Hormone Powder

In order to know how to apply rooting hormones, it is important to understand one or two basic premises. Firstly, that the concentration of hormone applied to induce root formation is not the best concentration to cause root development. Secondly, although the hormone may be absorbed through the bark, most of the hormone will be taken up through the cut base of the stem cutting. In actually applying the hormone therefore take care to touch only the basal cut surface on to the powder so that no...

Monocot leaves

Monocot Leaves Line Drawings

Monocotyledonous plants, such as snowdrops and mother-in-law's tongues, have a series of parallel veins running the length of each leaf. Some of these plants can be propagated at any time of year from leaf cuttings, providing they have an inherent capacity to produce a plantlet on the cut surface of a vein and suitable leaves are available. Cuttings from normal leaves such as Cape cowslips Lachenalia , snowdrops Galanthus and snowflakes Leucojum tend to wilt quickly, so keep them turgid by...

Bulbs

Bulbs Structure Bulblets Propagate

Bulbs are modified stems in which the scale leaves are modified for food storage. There are two kinds of bulbs, tunicate and scaly, and they differ in the development of their scale leaves. Tunicate bulbs, such as daffodils and tulips see below , have fleshy, very broad scale leaves, more or less surrounding the previous leaf so that the leaves make nearly complete concentric rings around the growing point. Each scale leaf has an axillary bud. The outer scale leaves become dry and membranous...

Root cuttings

Root Cuttings Guide

After all the initial aspects have been considered and the root cutting has been made, the next step is to consider the question of what treatment the cutting may need in order to enhance its chances of producing a stem bud and then surviving until the bud develops and establishes as a new plant. At present there are no growth-promoting substances available for root cuttings, so that it is not possible to enhance bud production in this way. The special powders produced for inducing roots on...

Rooting hormonesWounding

F Certnin chemicals will promote or regulate giowth responses in plants when used in Minute dosages, and they are used by g.iideners not only for plant propagation but nlso to achieve a variety of other responses, sui h as encouraging fruit trusses to set. Ihese plant-growth regulating substances work at very low concentrations and within very critical limits a substance that sets ftuits at one concentration and produces i its on stem cuttings at another may be used as a weedkiller at yet...

Bulblets and bulbils

Bulblets are tiny bulbs that develop below ground on some bulbs. Plants that produce bulblets can be artificially induced to increase their bulblet production. This is done by removing the flower stem, and burying it until bulblets develop in the leaf axils. Dig a trench 6 in deep slope one side up to ground level. Pinch out any buds or flowers on the stem and then twist it out of the bulb, which should remain in the ground. Lay the stem in the trench along the slope, leaving part of it...

Greenhouses

The next step in the sequence of environmental control is the greenhouse, where slightly more sophisticated pieces of equipment for environmental control can be used. Greenhouses can, of course, be of a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Wooden-framed greenhouses are expensive to purchase, maintain and keep clean. Metal greenhouses are less expensive, cheaper to maintain and easier to keep clean, but unless they have an adequate internal structure they are subject to considerable distortion and...

Rose budding

Standard Roses Rootstock

Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses should be propagated by inserting buds into seedling rootstocks rather than by taking stem cuttings. The advantage of rose budding is that the seedling rootstocks boost the vigour of the weaker varieties, which on their own roots may grow only 9 in or so, while reducing the potential of the more vigorous ones, which might otherwise reach 14-16 ft tall. The selection of a suitable rootstock is one of the most important decisions when propagating roses. Although it...

Herbaceous plants

The growing of herbaceous plants from seed is by no means as widely practised as the growing of bedding plants or even alpines from seed. This is largely because most herbaceous plants are selected forms that require vegetative methods of propagation. However, there are many herbaceous plants, such as delphiniums and lupins, that can be grown successfully from seed. Most hardy herbaceous plants, and especially those that disperse their seeds in the late summer and autumn, will produce seeds...

Disposable Pots

It is also possible to obtain various types of disposable pots, which are usually made of someform of processed organic material. The commonest of these are compressed peat pots through which a plant's roots will pass. These have considerable value to scrubbing and sterilizing between use, whicl is time consuming. Because clay pots ar lt porous, the compost dries out more quickl than it would in plastic pots, and so moni day-to-day management is needed. i Broad pots have greater stability, so,...

Propagators

The alternative compromise is the so-called propagator. This is a portable unit and can be used either in the greenhouse or indoors provided that adequate light is available. It consists of a glass-fibre base fitted with a thermostat and heating cables and a Perspex-type dome, which provides the closed environment. All sorts of variations are available so make sure that the propagator you Jbuy is sufficiently large for your needs.

Bulb scaling

Lily Bulblets Formation

To increase a particular variety of bulb rapidly it is necessary to use artificial techniques, because the natural rate of increase, although steady, is generally slow. One technique is to take leaf cuttings, although, with bulbs, these leaves are modified in the form of bulb scales and the technique is known as bulb scaling. Scaly bulbs, such as lilies and fritillaries, have relatively small, narrow scale leaves which can readily be pulled off the basal plate of the bulbs. When they can best...

Nicking a seed

Sandpaper Storage

Chip a seed with a hard seedcoat with a knife or razor blade until the seed itself is exposed and water can be taken up. Do not cut into the embryo. Alternatively, rub with a file until seedcoat is sufficiently worn away for water to be absorbed into jthe embryo. Before sowing it is necessary to break the dormancy of seeds with hard seedcoats, and this can be done artificially by the gardener so that germination will occur as soon as conditions are suitable. Commercially, the dormancy period is...

Corms

Bulbs And Corms

I Corms look very similar to bulbs and are often confused with them. However, struc-I lurally they are very different. A corm consists 4 of a stem that is swollen as a food store and that is shorter and broader than a bulb. The leaves of the stem are modified as thin, dry f membranes that enclose the corm and protect it against injury and drying. Each leaf nas a bud in its axil, the top of the stem usually develops as a flowering stem, and the gt roots are produced from the corm's base, k which...

Ingredients For Various Compost

Sieving Sand

Lqual parts peat sieved and sand in and ty oz ground limestone and ozsuperphosphate per bushel of compost JOHN INNES No. 1 POTTING COMPOST 7 parts loam sterilized 2 parts sand in grade and f oz ground limestone and 4oz J. I. fertilizer base per bushel of compost 1 part sand j - in grade and 4oz any fertilizer base and 4 oz ground limestone per bushel of compost LOAMLESS POTTING COMPOST WITH LOAN 7 parts peat sieved 2 parts sand f-jL n grade 1 part loam sterilized and 4oz any fertilizer base and...

Modified stems

Specialized Stems Like Stolons

A modified stem is an organ that stores food, which the plant can then use to survive its dormancy period. Also, it is often the means by which a plant can spread and produce new plants. To be classed amongst this group a modified stem must exhibit all the characteristics of a stem. It must have a stem structure that is it will have an apical growing point the stem itself will carry leaves with buds in their axils and the arrangement of the leaves will be spiral, alternate or opposite each...

Polythene tents and tunnels

At the other extreme is a cheap and simple arrangement that provides a sufficiently effective closed environment for easily propagated plants. Place a polythene bag over the top of a pot or tray, and support it either by one or two canes or by a loop of wire with an end stuck in the compost seal with a rubber band. Make a polythene tunnel over plants outdoors by supporting some polythene sheeting with wire and then sealing the ends.

Sowing bedding plant seeds

Sequence Plant

At the requisite size for planting out so that they will make a significant impact when in flower. The sequence of bedding plant sowing is governed primarily by the speed of germination and subsequently by the growth rate of the seedlings of each species. Thus slow-developing plants are sown early in the year 4 Mix small dust-like seeds with some dry, fine sand to extend the seeds. 5 Broadcast sow the seeds thinly, keeping hand close to compost surface. 6 Sieve just enough compost over the...

Wounding Stem Cuttings

Example Monocot Seeds

Since certain chemicals are capable of enhancing root production on a stem cutting, it is possible that other techniques may also cause a surge in natural hormone production that could improve rooting. In some plants there exists in the stem between the bark tissues and the wood tissues a sheath of material that is capable of inhibiting root development. However, when part of this sheath is damaged, then roots will be produced normally. This damage is achieved by a technique known as wounding....

Preparing the compost

Compost Presser Board

Of those conditions causing dormancy in many alpine seeds see pages 28-9 . Germination will occur in the spring. It is unlikely, in many cases, that the seedlings will be big enough to prick out until the autumn or following spring. Therefore give the seedlings a regular liquid feed at the intervals recommended by the manufacturer. 1 Select a container with excellent drainage. Fill with compost then firm. 2 Strike off the excess compost until it is level with the rim. 3 Firm with a presser...