Planting design

Presently, the common training system used for kiwifruit vineyards in the Pacific Northwest is a pergola (solid overhead canopy). However, a T-bar system has yielded well at the NWREC, is easier to prune, and may be better suited for small-scale production. For a T-bar trellis, vines commonly are planted 15 feet apart in rows 15 feet apart, resulting in 194 plants per acre. With a ratio of 1 male 8 females, there are 174 female vines per acre. For the pergola, you may want to space rows 15 to...

Summer pruning

In the Pacific Northwest, growers generally have done little summer pruning other than to remove unwanted suckers from the base of the vine and hedging. Hedging is done only in the T-bar system to keep the aisles open. Use a sickle bar to cut shoots back to about 2 feet from the edge of the trellis. Some thinning (removal) of excessive vegetative shoots not needed for next year also can be done. Take care not to prune excessively in the summer, as fruit and sometimes canes may become sunburned....

Third season

Step Step Pruning Kiwi

Continue to extend the cordons, if necessary, by training the strongest shoots down the center wire until they're within about 1 foot of the cordon of adjacent vines. Do not allow them to twist tightly around the wire, which might restrict sap flow later. Continue to train lateral branches perpendicular to the cordons (Figure 4, page 15). Do not train shoots along the outer wires parallel to the cordon they would cause too much competition for light. In the third dormant period, prune so that...

Pollination

For fruit to be produced, male and female vines must be present in a block and must flower at the same time. Male flowers produce viable pollen for only the first 2 to 3 days after opening. However, female flowers are receptive to pollen for 7 to 9 days after opening, even when the petals have started falling. Pollination is extremely important in kiwifruit production. Large Hayward fruit contain 1,000 to 1,400 seeds, and Ananasnaya fruit contain up to 240 seeds. If pollination is poor, fruit...

Tbar

A typical T-bar trellis consists of posts with a 5- to 6-foot-long cross arm depending on row width extending across each post Figure 1-A . The kiwivine fruiting canes are tied to wires on top of the cross arm. Use pressure-treated 4- to 6-inch diameter posts that are 8 to 9 feet long spaced at 15 to 20 feet down the row. Square posts are easier to work with. Drive posts 2 to 3 feet into the ground. Use end posts that are at least 6 inches in diameter, and drive them at an angle with the top of...

Male

Pollinizer for above A. arguta species. About one male is needed for every eight females. There is evidence that A. arguta cultivars can be pollinated by A. deliciosa males, which produce more pollen than arguta males. However, A. deliciosa males are much less hardy than A. arguta males thus, you risk crop loss to cold injury when using fuzzy males see Pollination for more information . Other cultivars selections that may be available include Dumbarton Oaks, 74-45, 74-8, and Michigan reported...

Wind damage

Long shoots are very susceptible to wind damage or breakage in spring and summer. Not only can wind cause fruit loss, but it also may reduce economic yields by causing the fruit to rub. When rubbed, fuzzy kiwi first lose their fuzz and then develop a callus, whereas the hardy types develop a callused or scabbed area. Scabbed fruit are suitable only for processing. In windy areas, wind breaks such as poplars help reduce economic losses. Plant wind breaks to provide 200 to 250 feet of protection...

Site selection

The single most limiting factor for fuzzy kiwifruit production is temperature. A. deliciosa Hayward can withstand temperatures as low as 10 F -12 C . Cold injury to Hayward has occurred in some winters in the Pacific Northwest. Dormant A. arguta vines are much more cold-hardy than the fuzzy types to -10 to -25 F or -23 to -32 C . However, young vines of this species also can suffer winter injury, particularly to the trunk, if temperatures fluctuate from warm to cold in late winter. Both A....

Dormant pruning

Kiwfruit Cane

Dormant pruning of kiwivines is best done in late December to late January in the Pacific Northwest. Late-pruned vines may have excessive sap flow, which may weaken vines. In kiwifruit, flowers are produced on current-season shoots that grow from buds developed on 1-year-old canes last year's growth . Shoots that grow from older wood seldom produce fruit in their first season. Shoots from buds that were heavily shaded during the preceding season are less productive than those from buds that...

Ananasnaya

This is the most popular hardy kiwifruit cultivar currently available. Its Russian name means pineapplelike. You also may hear this cultivar referred to as Anna. Fruit are of very good quality, with a good aroma and sweet, intense flavor. They have green skin that develops a purple-red blush in full sun, especially when vine ripened. Skin may be slightly tough. The cultivar Ananasnaya brought to Oregon is A. arguta. However, the Russian Ananasnaya cultivar is A. kolomikta more than one cultivar...

Impact sprinklers

Impact sprinklers are the most common type of irrigation system used in kiwifruit vineyards in the Pacific Northwest. They can be placed over or under the canopy. Impact systems work well if the canopies aren't in the way, but they tend to use more water than drip or minisprinkler systems. Overhead sprinklers are best for frost protection. Some growers use a T assembly on the sprinkler riser to switch from over-vine sprinklers to under-vine sprinklers. They use the over-vine positions for frost...

Introduction

Kiwifruit are native to southeast Asia. There are more than 50 species in the genus Actinidia, and many have commercial potential. The most common kiwifruit species grown commercially is Actinidia deliciosa cultivar Hayward. Consumers are very familiar with this brown, fuzzy fruit. Hayward needs a growing season of about 225 to 240 frostfree days. Although this species should tolerate temperatures down to 10 F -12 C , plants may be damaged at slightly higher temperatures. Actinidia chinensis,...

Fuzzy Kiwifruit

Actinidia deliciosa, fuzzy kiwifruit, is the most widely available species. Fuzzy kiwi are grown commercially in New Zealand, Italy, Japan, France, Australia, Greece, Chile, and California. There is some commercial production in Oregon and Washington United States and in British Columbia ' JSP . ritisn uoiumwa k- 'i -T Canada gt however, this species is not extremely hardy and may suffer cold injury in some years in ' it r-ij' ' '. vi injury in some yea -' fyf ft Cold damage usually occurs when...

Hardy Kiwi

The hardy kiwifruit species most recommended for production in the Pacific Northwest is A. arguta. In 2000, there were an estimated 100 acres of A. arguta cultivar Ananasnaya in the Pacific Northwest. Very few cultivars of this species are grown here. Hardy kiwi plants are very vigorous and produce a good-quality, highly aromatic fruit that is quite different from the fruit of A. deliciosa. Fruit are smooth skinned skin can be eaten , generally green in color, and much smaller than the fuzzy...

Blake

A self-fertile cultivar that does benefit from cross-pollination. Fruit are smaller than Hayward or Saanichton 12 and are more oval in shape. Flavor is inferior to Hayward and Saanichton 12. Harvest early October Fruit weight 60-70 grams Vine growth vigorous A pollinizer is required for all fuzzy kiwi, with the possible exception of Blake. There are many cultivars selections of males available. Examples include Matua, Tomuri, Cal Chico No. 3, Chico Early, and Chico Extra Early. Males of these...

Training Young Vines

Proper pruning during the establishment years is necessary to establish a well-formed permanent framework for the vine. Developing or training young kiwifruit vines into a bilateral cordon allows for easier management when the plants are mature. Kiwifruit produce a crop on shoots that grow from 1-year-old canes last year's growth . In the first few years, you train vines the same way for both the pergola and the T-bar system. Prune dormant kiwivines in late December to late January in the...

Fertilization

It is relatively easy to burn the roots of kiwivines, so apply fertilizer cautiously. The following recommendations are based on our experiences in the Pacific Northwest. Fertilize young kiwifruit vines monthly with small amounts of nitrogen N . Ammonium nitrate and urea are good sources of nitrogen for kiwifruit. In the first year, apply no more than 0.4 oz of actual N per plant per month in May, June, and July 12 lb actual N per acre for 160 plants per acre . Spread the nitrogen in a circle 6...