Cultivation

Most red raspberries (there are also a few with yellow fruit) flower in late spring and the fruits ripen in early to midsummer, depending upon the variety and the weather such varieties are called standard or summer-bearing raspberries. The stems, or canes, are biennial in that they grow vegetatively in their first year, flower and fruit in their second year and then die back to ground level. The root system is perennial and of suckering habit, producing each growing season new replacement...

Red and white currants

Red and white currants are basically derived from two European species, Ribes rubrum and R. spicatum. Red currants sometimes occur as garden escapes from bird-sown seed and R. rubrum is also found naturalized in many areas. The fruit buds are produced in clusters at the base of the one-year-old shoots and on short spurs on the older wood. Because of this fruiting habit there is a permanent framework of branches, unlike the black currant for which a succession ofyoung wood is needed. The red...

Supporting the canes

To prevent the canes from bowing over when heavy with fruit and to keep the fruits clean it is generally advisable to support the canes. The usual method is a post and wire fence for which there are various alternative systems. It is easier to erect the fence before planting, although it may be left until the end of the first summer. Single fence vertically trained canes This is the most popular method and consists of single wires stretched horizontally at heights of 21 2, 31 2 and 51 2ft. It...

Pruning the cropping tree

Modified Lorette System Prune

Each May, once the cordon has passed the top wire and reached the required height usually 7 ft , cut back the extension growth to its origin. Each July subsequently, cut the leader to 1 in. From mid-July onwards the remaining shoots on the cordon are pruned on the Modified Lorette System see above . If, later on, there are secondary growths from shoots pruned in July, cut them back to mature wood just before leaf-fall. In areas 3 In late July, cut back laterals longer than 9 in arising directly...

The third year

3 In spring, cut back all leaders to suitable buds, leaving 18-21 in of new growth. the soil around trained trees must be kept clear by maintaining a 3 ft wide border along the length of the wall over the spread of the tree. The border may then be planted to grass if the tree is developing in a satisfactory manner. Dwarf and standard trees should also be grassed down after five years. For the grass mixture see page 57 . Keep the grass clear of the trunk of the tree, as not to do so will...

Vinifera grapes

Pruning Double Guyot First Year

The Four-Arm Kniffin system is the method generally chosen in warm climates, but a modification called the Spur system is used for varieties such as 'Csaba' and 'Cardinal'. The Spur system allows the fruit-bearing arms to be permanent, that is they are not renewed annually. Each arm has 6-8 vertical fruiting spurs and each spur has 2-3 buds that produce fruit shoots. In cold climates, where tender varieties need winter protection, the Modified Chautauqua system can be used. Guyot system This is...

A classification of plums

Plums grow in varieties of color, shape, and size and are known by different names in various parts of the world. Understandably, therefore, confusion often occurs among gardeners and botanists over names in the plum family. The plum is a deciduous tree ranging in height from 15-30 ft when mature. It bears small fruit and is popular with gardeners. For reasons of simplification, the plum can be classified into three broad categories or groups European, Japanese and native. But there are several...

Formative pruning

Picture Unfeathered Maiden Apple

Formed espaliers may be obtained or the gardener may prefer to start off with a maiden 2 From June to September, train the shoot from the top bud vertically up a cane. Train the shoots from the two lower buds at an angle of 45 degrees to the main stem. Tie them to canes fixed on the wire support. 1 In late winter, plant an unfeathered maiden tree. Cut back the stem to within 15 in of ground level. Leave room for a short leg and select three good upper buds for training. tree. The formative...

Black currants

1 In early spring, clear the ground of weeds. Dig in a 3 in layer of manure or compost. Rake in a balanced fertilizer such as 10-10-10 at 3 oz per square yard. 5 In March, apply a balanced fertilizer such as 10-10-10 at 3 oz per square yard. A month later, apply 1 oz sulfate of ammonia per square yard 2 Dig a hole wide and deep enough to take the roots spread out well. Plant the bush 2 in deeper than it was at the nursery. Fill in the hole and firm the soil. 6 In July, the bush fruits best on...

Quinces

Quince How Grow From Seed

1 Between November and March, prepare the ground, clearing away perennial weeds over an area roughly 3 ft square. Choose the planting position carefully. The true quince Cydonia oblonga is a native of central to south-western Asia. It has been cultivated since ancient times. It is related to the pear, for which it is often used as a rootstock to induce a more dwarfing effect on the vigor of the pear tree. The true quince is often confused with its distant relatives the oriental quinces...

Raspberries

If aphids are present, spray with dimethoate, formothion or malathion in spring. An oil spray in winter gets rid of the over-wintering eggs. To prevent raspberry beetle grubs feeding on the fruits in summer, spray at dusk with malathion or derris when the first pink berry is seen. The most serious diseases of raspberries are viruses, which cause the leaves to become mottled or blotched and the canes to be stunted. Seek expert advice before destroying canes because the symptoms are similar to...

Training and pruning

Grape Trellis Kniffen System

The training and pruning of grapes are matters of critical importance. The main purposes of training are to keep the large, fast-growing vines under control, to facilitate care and harvesting, and to expose all parts of the plants to the sun. The purposes of pruning are to maintain vigorous growth, to provide new canes for the next year, and to limit the number of fruit-producing buds so that the vines do not produce too much small fruit of inferior quality. Various training systems are used...

Pruning a feathered maiden

1 In late winter, prepare the soil and drive in a stake. Plant a maiden tree to the same depth as it was at the nursery. Tie to the stake. Cut the main stem back to a bud or lateral at about 24 in for a dwarf, 30 in for a standard. Prune in late winter, but not when the air temperature is below freezing. The first winter The work of forming the head begins with the maiden tree. Unfeathered At planting, shorten the maiden tree to 24 in for a dwarf bush or to 30 in if a standard is to be formed....

Biennial bearing

Biennial bearing or the carrying of a heavy crop one year and little or none in the next, is a common problem with apples and pears. Certain varieties are prone to it, although almost any variety can fall into this habit. It is more likely to happen to trees which are starved or receiving insufficient moisture, which makes them unable to carry a heavy crop and at the same time develop fruit buds for the following year. Frost destroying the blossom one spring can sometimes be the start of...

The fruiting stage

Modified Lorette System

Each summer The fruits are carried on spur systems on the horizontal arms. The spurs are formed by the summer pruning of laterals on the Modified Lorette System in exactly the same way as for cordons. Regard each arms as a horizontal cordon see pages 50-1 . Winter After a few years of fruiting, the spur systems may become complicated and should be simplified by removing clusters of weak buds and by cutting back some of the spurs to two or three fruit buds. 5 From July to September, train the...

Third and fourth years

Placed lateral and leave it unpruned. placed lateral and leave it unpruned. occurred. Flower buds have formed on last year's wood. Cut back to the occurred. Flower buds have formed on last year's wood. Cut back to the 4 In October, at the end of the growing season, a strong new lateral has been produced from the 1 in stub. This is left unpruned to repeat the cycle.