Red and white currants

Red and white currants are basically derived from two European species, Ribes rubrum and R. spicatum. Red currants sometimes occur as garden escapes from bird-sown seed and R. rubrum is also found naturalized in many areas. The fruit buds are produced in clusters at the base of the one-year-old shoots and on short spurs on the older wood. Because of this fruiting habit there is a permanent framework of branches, unlike the black currant for which a succession ofyoung wood is needed. The red...

Pruning the cropping tree

Modified Lorette System Prune

Each May, once the cordon has passed the top wire and reached the required height usually 7 ft , cut back the extension growth to its origin. Each July subsequently, cut the leader to 1 in. From mid-July onwards the remaining shoots on the cordon are pruned on the Modified Lorette System see above . If, later on, there are secondary growths from shoots pruned in July, cut them back to mature wood just before leaf-fall. In areas 3 In late July, cut back laterals longer than 9 in arising directly...

The third year

3 In spring, cut back all leaders to suitable buds, leaving 18-21 in of new growth. the soil around trained trees must be kept clear by maintaining a 3 ft wide border along the length of the wall over the spread of the tree. The border may then be planted to grass if the tree is developing in a satisfactory manner. Dwarf and standard trees should also be grassed down after five years. For the grass mixture see page 57 . Keep the grass clear of the trunk of the tree, as not to do so will...

Vinifera grapes

Pruning Double Guyot First Year

The Four-Arm Kniffin system is the method generally chosen in warm climates, but a modification called the Spur system is used for varieties such as 'Csaba' and 'Cardinal'. The Spur system allows the fruit-bearing arms to be permanent, that is they are not renewed annually. Each arm has 6-8 vertical fruiting spurs and each spur has 2-3 buds that produce fruit shoots. In cold climates, where tender varieties need winter protection, the Modified Chautauqua system can be used. Guyot system This is...

A classification of plums

Plums grow in varieties of color, shape, and size and are known by different names in various parts of the world. Understandably, therefore, confusion often occurs among gardeners and botanists over names in the plum family. The plum is a deciduous tree ranging in height from 15-30 ft when mature. It bears small fruit and is popular with gardeners. For reasons of simplification, the plum can be classified into three broad categories or groups European, Japanese and native. But there are several...

Formative pruning

Picture Unfeathered Maiden Apple

Formed espaliers may be obtained or the gardener may prefer to start off with a maiden 2 From June to September, train the shoot from the top bud vertically up a cane. Train the shoots from the two lower buds at an angle of 45 degrees to the main stem. Tie them to canes fixed on the wire support. 1 In late winter, plant an unfeathered maiden tree. Cut back the stem to within 15 in of ground level. Leave room for a short leg and select three good upper buds for training. tree. The formative...

Cultivation

Some gardeners prefer to grow strawberries as an annual crop, planting new runners each year. This method produces high quality fruits but a lower yield than that of larger two- or three-year-old plants. Soil and situation Most soils are suitable for strawberries, but they should be well drained. On waterlogged land, if a drainage system is not practicable, grow strawberries on ridges 2-3 in high. They prefer a slightly acid pH 6.0-6.5 light loam in a frost-free, sunny situation. They will,...

Pruning the fantrained tree after harvesting

Immediately after cropping, not later than the end of September, cut out the laterals which carried the fruits back to the replacement shoots. Tie in the young shoots and cut out any dead or broken branches. Once the peach has reached the required height and spread, remove any unwanted extension growth by cutting to a lateral further back along the branch. Cut out bare wood back to strong young replacements. Protect the wounds with a wound paint. number of diseases and insects but this need not...

Quinces

Quince How Grow From Seed

1 Between November and March, prepare the ground, clearing away perennial weeds over an area roughly 3 ft square. Choose the planting position carefully. The true quince Cydonia oblonga is a native of central to south-western Asia. It has been cultivated since ancient times. It is related to the pear, for which it is often used as a rootstock to induce a more dwarfing effect on the vigor of the pear tree. The true quince is often confused with its distant relatives the oriental quinces...

Raspberries

If aphids are present, spray with dimethoate, formothion or malathion in spring. An oil spray in winter gets rid of the over-wintering eggs. To prevent raspberry beetle grubs feeding on the fruits in summer, spray at dusk with malathion or derris when the first pink berry is seen. The most serious diseases of raspberries are viruses, which cause the leaves to become mottled or blotched and the canes to be stunted. Seek expert advice before destroying canes because the symptoms are similar to...

Training and pruning

Grape Trellis Kniffen System

The training and pruning of grapes are matters of critical importance. The main purposes of training are to keep the large, fast-growing vines under control, to facilitate care and harvesting, and to expose all parts of the plants to the sun. The purposes of pruning are to maintain vigorous growth, to provide new canes for the next year, and to limit the number of fruit-producing buds so that the vines do not produce too much small fruit of inferior quality. Various training systems are used...

The fruiting stage

Modified Lorette System

Each summer The fruits are carried on spur systems on the horizontal arms. The spurs are formed by the summer pruning of laterals on the Modified Lorette System in exactly the same way as for cordons. Regard each arms as a horizontal cordon see pages 50-1 . Winter After a few years of fruiting, the spur systems may become complicated and should be simplified by removing clusters of weak buds and by cutting back some of the spurs to two or three fruit buds. 5 From July to September, train the...

Third and fourth years

Placed lateral and leave it unpruned. placed lateral and leave it unpruned. occurred. Flower buds have formed on last year's wood. Cut back to the occurred. Flower buds have formed on last year's wood. Cut back to the 4 In October, at the end of the growing season, a strong new lateral has been produced from the 1 in stub. This is left unpruned to repeat the cycle.