The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System developed by Danie Wium is an excellent guide with comprehensive details to assist the enthusiast grape grower in achieving a successful outcome for years. It's designed for the absolute newbie but also contains information even the most experienced grape grower can use to boost their own grape farm. This book is so well written that even a person with no knowledge at all about growing grapes can easily understand and follow the directions given. The drawings and photographs are excellent and make this a very user friendly book indeed. The written work is very easy to understand and is not complicated by a lot of scientific jargon. Danie is a professional grape grower and has put together a course to help people grow grapes at home. His course also includes a video series that shows professional tips all recorded on his own farm. I recommend anyone considering growing their own grapes to buy this e-book. More here...

The Complete Grape Growing System Overview

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Section III Cultural Practices for Managing Mature Grapevines

Growing Table Grapes Pot

All cultural practices applied to grapevines are aimed at achieving the goals of acceptable yield and acceptable fruit quality. The intensity of a grower's vine management will reflect what he considers acceptable yield and fruit quality. Modest crops of imperfect fruit may be quite acceptable to a backyard grower, but such standards would put a commercial grower out of business. Several good vine management options for table grape production are presented below. Growers need to choose among these options to satisfy their desired intensity of vine management. Grapevine Training Systems for Table Grape Production Grapevines are properly managed with a specific growth form. The steps taken to establish this form constitute a training system. From the numerous training systems that have been devised for grapevines, the following are recommended for table grape production in a temperate climate because they promote both fruit maturity and development of highly fruitful nodes on fruiting...

Vineyard Fertilization

Most temperate-climate vineyards benefit from nitrogen and potassium (potash) fertilization. Commercial growers need a comprehensive vineyard fertilization program involving petiole analysis (Hanson, 1996), but growers of small vineyards will very often do well if they provide vines with maintenance levels of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. Apply 30 or 60 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre (see Table 1 for amounts per vine) to young vines in their first and second years of growth, respectively. Apply 30, 60 or 100 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre (see Table 1 for amounts per vine) to mature vines, depending on whether it is desirable to decrease, maintain or increase vine size, respectively. Make annual applications of 150 pounds of actual potassium per acre (Table 1) as a maintenance program for that nutrient. Apply these fertilizers by banding them under the trellis in the spring when shoot growth is 10 to 15 inches long. If vines develop potash deficiency as evidenced by...

Harvesting Table Grapes

The balance between sugar and acid in a grape berry determines its palatability. Though the timing of commercial table grape harvests may be guided by measurements of sugar and acid levels in the fruit, often the start of harvest of table grapes will simply be a matter of deciding when the grapes taste good. Grapes do not ripen off the vine, so their quality can only go down after picking. Picking too early may jeopardize your market. Picking too late may cause a loss of early market opportunity and often reduces the storage life of the fruit. It can be helpful to have someone other than the grower taste the grapes to determine the start of harvest. Develop an organized plan for harvesting. Table grapes are either harvested into field lugs for repacking or picked directly into market packaging. Whatever containers are used, distribute them in the vineyard so they are readily available to pickers. Their time should be totally dedicated to picking. Picking shears should be kept clean...

Pruning Vines for Table Grape Production

The more severely a vine is pruned, the smaller the crop that will develop. That reduces the stress on a vine to ripen the crop so that the vine grows more vigorously. Even a poor job of pruning maintains a vine's health better than no pruning. Pruning is performed all winter in many large commercial vineyards because this big job requires many hours. Spring is the ideal time to prune temperate-climate vineyards, however, because the extent of winter injury to vines can be determined. If injury has occurred, pruning severity can be adjusted. If winter injury to vines is suspected, evaluate the extent of that injury before beginning to prune vines in the spring. Cut a cross-section of about 10 nodes on canes that are the same quality as those that will be chosen for fruiting. If three or more of those nodes have dead primary buds, as indicated by their dark color (Fig. 2b), then more thoroughly investigate node mortality. Collect 10 canes with 10 nodes...

Gro Vida Gibberellic Acid Growing Table Grapes

Table grapes have become a very popular fruit in the United States. Annual per capita consumption of table grapes in the United States has quadrupled over the past quarter century. It now exceeds 7 pounds per person, and grapes rank fourth after bananas, apples and oranges. Improved storage technology and extensive winter importation now make table grapes available year round. Though the major U.S. table grape production regions are in warm climates such as the San Joaquin Valley of California, many areas with temperate climates have potential for exciting and profitable production of flavorful table grapes. Temperate climates are those that may have a warm growing season but have other temperature-related characteristics that challenge grape production. These may include frost-free growing seasons of 165 days or less, winter minimum temperatures of -5 F or lower, and growing season heat accumulations of 3,000 growing degree-days or less (base 50 F). Breeding programs have developed...

Controlling Animal Depredation in Table Grapes

Electric Fence Raccoon Control

It can be very frustrating to bring a wonderful table grape crop through its stages of development and then lose it to critters at the moment of harvest. Birds and raccoons are often the culprits, but skunks or deer can also be a problem. Control measures for these problems range from slightly to totally effective and inexpensive to costly. Control of birds begins with the location of the vineyard and its surroundings. Vineyards close to roosting sites for birds such as trees or high-tension wires attract bird problems. Scare devices such as snake and hawk decoys, colored streamers, shiny aluminum pans and scarecrows can be partially effective. Some audio devices scare birds at first, but they can become conditioned to these. Relatively new devices that play distress calls of specific bird species have had encouraging results. Unfortunately, bird pecks on a few berries may destroy the worth of an entire cluster of table grapes. The only foolproof way to control heavy bird depredation...

Spring Vineyard Chores

When the snow cover is gone and the soil has thawed, it is time to begin spring vineyard activities. Trellis maintenance is the first task (Zabadal, 1997). Freeze thaw conditions over a period of years may gradually heave posts out of the soil, especially on heavy, wet soils. Whenever this is apparent, pound posts to their original depth. Replace decayed and broken posts. Repair breaks in wires and retension wires as needed. After the trellis has been repaired, tie grapevines to the trellis. Apply preemergence herbicides under the trellis to control annual weeds (Gut et

Seedless Table Grapes

Even though they are less than perfect, their flavor far exceeds that of Thompson or Flame seedless grapes from the West Coast. Vanessa and Reliance high-quality grapes, but with thin skins that are susceptible to cracking and diseases. Growing top-quality seedless grapes involves many time-consuming steps. Commercial growers spray gibberellic acid and use special tools to girdle trunks or individual fruiting canes to improve berry set and increase berry size. They also increase berry size by thinning individual berries from each cluster and thinning clusters before and after bloom. Home gardeners can grow seedless grapes without using all these commercial practices. The grapes will be just as flavorful but smaller than those found in the supermarket. A common system for training seedless grapes uses cross-arms on trellis posts up to 42 inches wide. Wires in the middle of the cross-arms support fruit canes. Catch wires at the ends of the cross-arms...

Marketing Table Grapes

Flavor and vine-ripened maturity are the marketing strengths of table grapes grown in temperate climates. Be politely assertive when developing a new market for table grapes. Acquaint consumers with the quality of unknown grape varieties by providing free samples. Point-of-sale literature is also helpful. Quality fruit resulting from good vineyard management is fundamental to all marketing success. Attractive packaging of an appropriate size is important. Avoid large container sizes. Even a 2-quart container with 3 pounds of grapes is often larger than consumers desire. Most table grape varieties grown in temperate climates cannot be packed in bulk boxes and sold by the pound because there is too much waste from berries shattering off clusters. One-quart containers packed in a master container are popular. Perforated polyethylene bags for packaging individual clusters are another possibility. Temperate-climate table grapes are often direct marketed through roadside or regional farm...

Grapes

Most grape varieties set seed profusely, and breeding grapes is theoretically a straightforward process. Nevertheless, to produce a wine grape superior to the Cabernet Sauvignon of Bordeaux, or the Pinot Noir of Burgundy, is possibly the most difficult plant breeding task in the world. Undoubtedly, much of the quality of wine depends on post-harvest processes such as fermenting, bottling, and storage. But it is impossible to produce a good wine from bad grapes. And it is equally impossible to envisage wines superior to the best clarets and Burgundies. The only remotely realistic possibility would be to replace Cabernet Sauvignon or Pinot Noir with new varieties of equal quality, but with high levels of horizontal resistance to their various new-encounter parasites, so that the need for chemical pesticides is reduced or eliminated. But the difficulties are enormous. The chances of breeding a new white wine grape may be slightly better, but only slightly. The chances of breeding a new...

Storing Table Grapes

Most of the table grape varieties grown in a temperate climate store well in a typical farm cold storage for at least seven to 10 days. With a little effort, that time period may be lengthened. Desiccation and decay are the storage hazards of table grapes. Fumigation, the use of sulfur dioxide pads or other fungicidal techniques combat storage diseases of grapes in large commercial operations (Zabadal et al., 1988). Put only healthy, dry grapes into storage. Pick grapes for storage early in the harvest period when they are acceptably ripe rather than later when they are overripe. The cluster stem (rachis) is the most vulnerable portion of the cluster to water loss. Browning of cluster stems can occur when clusters have lost as little as 5 of their weight because of desiccation. Some relatively easy steps can reduce fruit desiccation. Harvest fruit as cool as possible and transport it quickly to cold storage. Even under temperate-climate conditions, place containers of harvested grapes...

Quality Table Grapes

Any grapes that pass the taste test are often considered acceptable fruit quality by backyard growers. Commercial growers must use a more complex consumer definition of acceptable fruit quality that involves not only taste but also appearance, including compactness of the cluster, berry color, berry size, and freedom from visible defects such as cracking, rot and spray residue. Numerous vine practices can influence these aspects of table grape quality (Table 2). Grape growers must decide how important individual fruit quality components are to their fruit production and marketing. For example, if berry size is considered important, the grower should use one or more of the vine cultural practices that influence berry size (Table 2). Grape varieties vary greatly in their response to cultural practices. Some table grape varieties for temperate climates have been extensively evaluated with regard to these practices and information to guide growers is available (Zabadal et al., 1997). Many...

Going ape for grapes

Growing organic grapes (Vitis species) successfully depends on your climate, cultural strategies, and the varieties you choose. Arid climates provoke fewer diseases than humid climates. You can grow grapes nearly anywhere in Zones 3 through 10, and they tolerate a wide range of soil conditions well-drained soil in the pH range of 5.5 to 7.0 is best. Grapes need full sun and very good air circulation to hamper diseases. At least three grape species and countless varieties exist in North American gardens and vineyards. The European grape (V. vinifera) grows best in a Mediterranean climate, such as California and parts of the southwestern United States. In hotter, humid climates, many people grow muscadine grapes (V. rotundifolia), which thrive in Zones 7 through 9. The native North American species (V. labrusca) and its hybrids are the hardiest and best for most other regions of the country. To sort out the complicated lineage, divide grapes into two broad categories table grapes and...

Gibberellic Acid Sprays

Gibberellic acid (GA) is a naturally occurring compound in a group of plant hormones called gib-berellins. GA application to table grape clusters may produce several responses. When it is applied to clusters early in their development, it may lengthen the cluster stem (rachis) to reduce cluster compactness. However, this response to GA application is often negated by the natural elongation of the cluster in a later stage of cluster development. Therefore, there is seldom a true cluster-loosening benefit from such early-season GA sprays. Efforts to use GA for this purpose should be evaluated carefully before it is adopted as a standard practice. A spray of GA at midbloom not only may increase berry size but in some varieties can also reduce the number of berries that set per cluster. However, the optimum time for a single application of GA to increase berry size is often at fruit set, when the berries are 4 to 5 mm in diameter (Fig. 22). Commercial applications of GA to increase berry...

Planting and Care of Young Vines

Hydroponically Grown Strawberries

Plant vines as early as possible in the spring. Keep vines cool and moist from the time you obtain them until planting. If the vineyard site has been adequately prepared (Zabadal and Andresen, 1997), then the steps in planting (Zabadal, 1997) should proceed in rapid succession. The hobbyist grower with a small number of vines should take the time to plant each vine so the root system is well distributed in the soil volume. Do not merely shove roots down a hole made with a posthole digger. Dig a large hole so roots can be spread out horizontally and vertically. Fill in the hole over the roots with loose soil. Then pull up the vine slightly so the aboveground portion of the vine is at ground level. Planting straight rows of vines in a small vineyard can be accomplished without commercial equipment. Stretch a rope or wire along the ground so it is parallel to and offset 30 inches from the row of vines (Fig. 6). Then use a 5-foot measuring stick to precisely measure the placement of the...

Suckers and Trunk Renewals

Table Grape Trellis

The trunk of a grapevine may remain healthy for decades or become diseased or winter-injured after just one or two years. Therefore, the trunks of vines need to be managed for the specific conditions of a vineyard. Even under the best of conditions, it is good management to replace trunks every 10 to 12 years in a temperate-climate vineyard. Many situations will require more frequent trunk replacement. Establishing new trunks is accomplished by first managing suckers, which are shoots that develop from below-ground or near the ground on trunks. (Some prefer to use the term water sprout for shoots that develop on the bases of trunks.) When a cane that has matured from a sucker is chosen to establish a new trunk, it is called a trunk renewal (Fig. 4). Suckers growing directly from the ground are preferred for trunk renewals on ungrafted vines. When they are not available, utilize canes originating on trunks as close to the ground as possible. On grafted vines, canes from suckers growing...

Insect and Disease Control

Photos Table Grape Growing Stages

Most consumers have no tolerance for imperfections in table grapes, so the table grape grower must control grape insects and diseases. The first step is to recognize the principal insects affecting table grape production in a temperate climate grape berry moth, leafhoppers, rose chafer and Japanese beetle as well as the principal grape diseases powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, and Botrytis bunch rot. Several excellent publications are available to assist commercial growers with this task (Ellis, 1995 Pearson and Goheen, Cultural Practices for Managing Mature Grapevines Table 1. Approximate rates of application per acre and per vine of three fertilizers for vineyard nitrogen and potassium fertilization. 1988 Ramsdell, 1994 Wolf and Poling, 1995). A companion to this publication has been specifically prepared as a guide for insect and disease identification and control in small vineyards (Zabadal, 1999). Sources of these publications are listed in...

Modified Arm Kniffiii Growers who do not

Four Arm Kniffin System Fence

Wish to construct trellis cross arms for the modified Munson training system can obtain many of the benefits of that system by utilizing a more simple two-dimensional training system called 4-arm Kniffin. William Kniffin developed this training system for grapevines in the Hudson Valley region of New York in the 1850s. He utilized four long fruiting canes for each vine. These canes were tied to two trellis wires at varying heights on the trellis (Fig. 3a). In later years, as vines developed a larger size due to improved cultural practices, the fruit along the lower fruiting wire of vines with 4-arm Kniffin training did not develop or mature as well as that situated along the top wire. Therefore, the modified version of Kniffin's training system recommended here places all four fruiting canes on two wires at the top of the trellis (Fig. 3b). This training system, like modified Munson, requires shoot positioning to ensure good fruit maturation (Fig. 3c) and the development of fruitful...

The Complete Grape Growers Guide

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Disease Management Guidelines for Grapes in Ohio. Wooster, Ohio Ohio State University, OARDC. Harrell, D.C., and L.E. Williams. 1987. The Influence of Girdling and Gibberellic Acid Application at Fruit Set on 'Ruby Seedless' and 'Thompson Seedless' Grapes. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 38 83-88. Photosynthesis of Vines Influence of Defoliation, Topping, Girdling and Removal of Grapes. Vitis 17 10-22. Jacob, H.E. 1931. Girdling Grapevines. Agricultural Extension Service. Circ. 56 1-18. Davis, Cal. University of California. Jensen, F., D. Luvisi, F. Swanson, G. Leavitt, F.G. Mitchell and G. Mayer. 1976. Effects of Complete and Incomplete Girdles on 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Ribier' Table Grapes. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 27 65-67. Nelson, K.E. 1985. Harvesting and Handling California Table Grapes for Market. Bull. 1913. Davis, Cal. University of California. Ramsdell, D.C. 1994. Common Diseases of the Grapevine in Michigan. Bull. E-1732. E....

Selecting Grape Varieties to Plant

More bad table grape varieties are available for purchase than good ones. Don't rush this decision. Though numerous high quality seeded table grape varieties are available for temperate-climate vineyards, the commercial grower should be mindful that the American consumer now has a 90 preference for seedless table grapes. That's the future, even though a few growers in the eastern United States still fresh-market significant quantities of 'Concord' and 'Niagara'. Hardiness is an important characteristic in table grape varieties for temperate-climate vineyards. Vines will often be injured at temperatures from -5 to -15 F, so commercial growers must carefully choose varieties matched to the low-temperature history of their site. Hobby growers situated on non-traditional vineyard sites will need to choose hardy varieties that will tolerate temperatures of -10 to -15 F or lower. Be careful in making choices. Many named seedless varieties have been unreliable producers over the years....

Appendix A Available Publications

These grape publications may be helpful to table grape growers. Sources of these publications are listed below. Cahoon, G., M. Ellis, R. Williams and L. Lockshin. 1991. Grapes Production, Management and Marketing. Bull. 815. Columbus, Ohio Ohio State University. (Source 2) Jordan, T.D., R.M. Pool, T.J. Zabadal and J.P. Tomkins. 1981. Cultural Practices for Commercial Vineyards. Geneva, N.Y. Cornell University. (Source 3) Ramsdell, D.C. 1994. Common Grape Diseases of the Grapevine in Michigan. Bull. E-1732. E. Lansing, Mich. Michigan State University. (Source 5) Reisch, B.I., D.V. Peterson, R.M. Pool and M.H. Martens. 1993. Table Grape Varieties for Cool Climates. I.B. Bulletin 234. Ithaca, N.Y. Cornell Univ. (Source 3) Zabadal, T.J. 1997. Vineyard Establishment II - Planting and Early Care of Vineyards. Bull. E-2645. East Lansing, Mich. Michigan State University. (Source 5) Zabadal, T.J. 1999. Pest Control in Small Vineyards. Bull. E-2698. East Lansing, Mich. Michigan State...

Shoots Laterals Trunks Arms and Cordons

Renewal Pruning Examples

The structure of a grapevine is really quite simple. Trunks and arms are the rough-barked, semi-permanent woody parts of the vine. A trunk is easy to identify because it originates at or near the ground like the trunks on other woody plants (Fig. 1a). There can be one, two or several trunks on a grapevine. When a Fig. 1 - Steps to training a grapevine to the Hudson River umbrella (HRU) training system (a) an unpruned double-trunked vine after its second year of growth (b) an expanded view of the top of a 2-year-old trunk indicating that the cane at the top will probably not be useful because it will be girdled by the twine (c) vine after pruning to retain the long canes to establish cordons and renewal spurs (d) vine after being tied to the trellis (e) unpruned vine after its third growing season (f) (see next page) vine after it is pruned and tied in preparation for its fourth growing season and those thereafter. Canes, the smooth-barked woody parts of the vine, are very important to...

Step Create Renewal Spurs

For Managing Mature Grapevines Pruning is the single most important vineyard task. Leaving too many nodes on a vine risks an excessively large crop of poor quality. Leaving too few nodes on a vine risks an unnecessarily small crop and excessive, unmanageable shoot growth. Nevertheless, when in doubt, err in favor of leaving too few nodes rather than too many. Though some crop will be sacrificed, the long-term health of the vine will be preserved or even improved. Do not be afraid to prune vines Brush pulling is the vineyard task of removing the pruned vine parts from the trellis. It is performed either while pruning or afterward as a separate operation. Place brush in the vineyard row middles and then chop it to promote its decay. Canes and arms are seldom a significant source of vine disease and insect problems. Large trunks, however, should always be hauled out of the vineyard and either burned or buried because they are frequently a source of spores of Eutypa dieback disease of...

Girdling

Grapevine Girdling

The benefits of girdling grapevines were documented more than 250 years ago through a fortuitous accident. A donkey had been tied to the trunk of a grapevine. It was observed that this vine matured fruit earlier and of higher quality than fruit on surrounding vines. Inspection of the vine revealed that the donkey's rope had worn away the bark and a portion of the trunk just below the bark. Girdling has the same effect by cutting through the phloem tissues below the bark so that the downward (basal) flow of sugars and other compounds produced in the leaves is blocked. Therefore, these substances become deposited in and increase the size of berries and other tissues above the girdle. Girdling is a powerful tool for the table grape grower because it may dramatically increase berry weight and advance fruit maturity, but girdling may also weaken the trunk and root tissues of grapevines in a temperate climate. Experiments a century ago in New York indicated that repeated annual trunk...

Crop Adjustment

Gibberellic Spraying Table Grapes And

Pruning a dormant grapevine is the principal method for controlling the size of its crop. However, even when the same vine is pruned identically each year, its crop level will vary considerably from year to year. This variability occurs because the weather during both the previous and the current growing seasons greatly influences the number of shoots that develop per node, the number of clusters that develop on each shoot, the number of florets that develop on each cluster, the percentage of those florets that set to become grape berries and berry size development. Therefore, precise control of crop level isn't possible with dormant pruning alone. Because crop level has such a large influence on fruit quality, several crop adjustment strategies are often used in table grape production to achieve a target crop level. Thinning is the practice of adjusting crop level during the growing season. It is achieved in two fundamental ways altering the number of clusters per vine and altering...

Shoot Topping

Shoot Topping Grapevine

Too many berries per cluster and excessive cluster compactness are common concerns of table grape growers. Occasionally, however, a grower may desire to increase berry set on straggly, loose clusters. Flower cluster thinning and berry thinning (Table 2) are good strategies for increasing cluster compactness. Shoot topping is another method for increasing fruit set. When grapevines are going through bloom, the clusters and rapidly growing shoots are competing for the sugars and other substances produced in the leaves. Slowing the growth of the shoot diverts more of the substances from the leaves into the clusters to promote an increase in berry set. A temporary reduction in grapevine shoot growth during bloom was accomplished in the past by spraying the product Alar. Shoot topping has the same effect by cutting off the

Brushing

Grow Greenhouse Seedless Table Grape

Many desirable table grape varieties develop very compact clusters. In a temperate climate, tight clusters combined with a thin berry skin can eliminate the commercial potential of a variety. Rain at harvest can cause tight-clustered varieties to crack and rot very quickly. Therefore, a grower may be forced to pick such fruit before it has adequately ripened. Few options are available to reduce cluster compactness (Table 2). A gibberellic acid spray, the easiest of these options, is ineffective on many varieties. Brushing can reliably reduce cluster compactness, but this is a labor-intensive practice, and the grower must decide if it is warranted. It may be a great technique on a few vines in a backyard vineyard, but will it pay for itself on commercial acreage Brushing must be performed prior to the start of bloom i.e., before the caps come off of the individual florets to avoid mechanical scarring of berry surfaces. A cluster is held in one hand (Fig. 30) and one or a pair of...

Shoot Positioning

Vine canopy management is a key factor in producing quality table grapes in a temperate climate. It begins with the choice of a vine training system. Fan training is presented in this publication only because it is a reasonable option for those determined to grow grapes in a marginal vineyard site that is vulnerable to frequent winter injury to vines. All of the other vine training systems in this publication were chosen because they are compatible with the canopy management practice of shoot positioning. Shoots of grapevines tend to grow upward and then run along the top of a vineyard trellis. In warm climates, the entangled mass of shoot growth at the top of the trellis is often considered desirable because it shades fruit to prevent sunscald. In temperate-climate vineyards, there is less risk of sunscald. The primary challenge is fruit maturation. Fruit exposure to the sun promotes fruit maturation in two ways. First, as the fruit begins to ripen and change color, a time...

Table of Contents

Section I - The Structure of a Grapevine 4 a Vineyard Site 9 For Managing Mature Grapevines 13 Grapevine Training Systems for Table Grape Production 13 Pruning Vines for Table Grape Production 18 Spring Vineyard Chores 22 Vineyard Fertilization 22 in Table Grapes 24 Produce Quality Table Grapes 26 Marketing of Table Grapes 38 Harvesting Table Grapes 38 Storing Table Grapes 38 Marketing Table Grapes 39 for Table Grape Production 42

Species redistribution

Trouble began with the relatively recent movement of plant and parasite species from one continent to another (see 3.8). The first major disaster was potato blight (Phytophthora infestans), introduced to Europe from Mexico and the United States in 1845. Next was the grape Phylloxera, introduced to Europe from the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, and which soon threatened to destroy the wine and table grape industries of Europe. This problem was solved by grafting the classic wine grapes on to rootstocks of wild, resistant, North American grapes. However, downy mildew was imported with these rootstocks and the wine industry was threatened with ruin for a second time. This second problem was solved by the discovery of Bordeaux mixture in 1882.

Diseases and Insects

This fungus can infect all green tissues of the grapevine. It appears as a white or grayish white powdery covering on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves and fruit. Leaves infected while they expand become distorted and stunted. When green shoots are infected, the fungus appears dark brown to black and remains as brown patches on the surface of dormant canes. Cluster infection before or shortly after bloom can result in poor fruit set and considerable crop loss. Fruits are susceptible to powdery mildew as well. If grapes are infected when they are pea size or larger, their skin stops growing but the pulp continues to expand and the berry splits. When attacked as they begin to ripen, purple Downy mildew. This fungus can infect all green, actively growing parts of the vine. Leaves develop yellowish green lesions on their upper surfaces 7 to 12 days after infection. As lesions expand, the affected areas become brown, withered, or mottled. A white downy fungus grows...

Controlling Disease in the Organic Garden

Bordeaux fungicide was discovered in 1882. In Medoc in southern France, many acres of grapes are grown. Little boys used to snatch and carry off the grapes which grew by the roadside. (They were hungry little boys.) The owners of the vineyards, becoming increasingly annoyed, had resorted to spattering the broad green leaves of the vines with a lime and water slurry to resemble bird droppings in the hope that this would give some protection from the 'light-fingered' boys. Some owners, a little more vindictive, added some bluestone, a substance well-known to be poisonous. This blue-white, sickly-looking concoction would stick to the grapes and foliage even through the heaviest rainstorms. The summer of 1882 was particularly wet, and mildew rotted the grapes, threatening to destroy the very vines themselves. Late that season, Dr Pierre Millardet, a professor of botany, was inspecting the devastated vineyards in the area. He noticed that a few plants near the roadway were healthy, and...

Picking from the Berry Patch

Ew plants give you more bang for your buck than berries. Homegrown raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, and grapes take little space and return months of mouthwatering fruit salads, pies, pancakes, and fresh-eating goodness. Although less commonly grown, elderberries, currants, and some other small fruits make excellent landscape specimens, and turn out fruit fit for delicious jellies and other homemade treats. Because berries are perishable and the soft fruits are difficult to package and ship, supermarket berries are expensive and often past their prime. Also, conventionally grown grapes, raspberries, and strawberries are some of the most heavily sprayed food crops, making growing your own even more attractive.

Crops that are difficult to breed

Crops that are difficult to breed include the classic wine grapes (but the breeding of Phylloxera-resistant rootstocks by plant breeding clubs is feasible), banana, pineapple, citrus, sisal, hops, olives, date palm, and black pepper, but there are many others among the roughly 350 cultivated species of plants.

Money and Time Demands

Home fruit growers may find it more difficult and expensive to grow high-quality tree fruit than small-fruit plants, such as strawberries, grapes, blueberries, and brambles. One reason for this is that many different pests and diseases plague tree fruits. Summer rainfall and high relative humidity favor the growth and spread of disease-causing organisms. Insects also are a challenge. Power-driven spray equipment is not practical for a small home planting, so getting spray into the canopy of a large fruit tree is difficult. Dwarf fruit trees are one solution because pesticides can be applied with hand-operated equipment. Berries and grapes have definite advantages for home gardening. They require a minimum of space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear at an early age. Their small stature makes disease and insect control easier and less expensive than with most tree fruits. But do not assume that diseases and insects cause less damage to small-fruit plants than to fruit trees.

Institutional plant breeding

In the future, institutional plant breeding should remain a government responsibility, and a government expense. It should concentrate on those crops that are beyond the technical capabilities of plant breeding clubs, such as the classic wine grapes, hops, figs, olives, bananas, coconuts, pineapples, and date palms (see 11.19).

The Apparent Conflict between Resistance and both Yield and Quality

The first refutation is the general principle that correlation is not proof. When the correlation is imperfect, the contention is even less convincing. There are plenty of examples of cultivars with both good yields and quality as well as good resistances. Some wild plants have qualities that exceed those of cultivars. The taste of wild strawberries, for example, is far superior to that of the high-yielding, large-fruited, cultivated varieties. Secondly, some cultivars have both high quality and high resistance. The classic wine grapes, for example, have qualities that cannot be surpassed and they had high levels of resistance to all their old-encounter parasites. It was not until the introduction of new-encounter parasites from America to Europe, in the nineteenth century, that grape parasites became seriously damaging. Indeed, the classic wine grapes were cultivated for centuries without any need for crop protection chemicals. The same can be said for other antique clones, such as...

Sweet and Crunchy Growing Fruits Berries and Nuts

S omegrown fruit, berries, and nuts take more time and care than some V rn other kinds of gardening. Although soft fruits like strawberries, grapes, and raspberries yield delicious results within few months or less, tree fruits and nuts require more patience and can take several years to be productive. Fruits and nuts also require a different sort of preparation than trees and bushes that don't bear them. But at harvest time, the work is all worth it In almost every region of North America, you can find a type of fruit or nut (or variety of fruit or nut) that's well-adapted and fairly easy to grow.

New Encounter Old Encounter and ReEncounter Parasites

New encounter parasites are those in which the host and parasite evolved separately, in different parts of the world, and were brought together by people. Typically, the parasite is moved to a new area where it able to parasitise a botanical relative of its original host. Both Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) and downy mildew (Plasmopora viticola) of grapes are typical examples of grape parasites that originated in the New World and were moved to the Old World. Alternatively, the host may be moved to a new area where it encounters a parasite of a wild botanical relative. Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), of potatoes in the United States is a typical example. A third possibility is that both the host and the parasite are moved to a new area where they encounter each other for the first time. This happened, for example, with potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) in the northern hemisphere.

The Success of Agro Evolution

Yams, cloves, olives, the classic wine grapes, figs, garlic, horseradish, and hops. Modern plant breeding has contributed nothing to either the productivity or the quality of any of these crops. And modern plant breeding has made only minor contributions to crops such as tea, coffee, cocoa, citrus, mango, pyrethrum, cassava, cashews, and many others.

Letting vines feed you too

Everyone knows about the grapevine, but many other vines also produce edible fruits, including passion fruit kiwi and cold-hardy arctic kiwi, berries, hops, and chayote. Don't forget annual vines such as peas, beans, squash, and melons. Food-bearing vines can grow in places where fruit trees and vegetable beds would never fit, and they often put the fruit at a nice pickable level to eliminate stooping and climbing.

Vertical resistance ultimate function

A slender climbing stem, this term is often used as a name for grapes. Viroid The grape vine, cultivated primarily for the manufacture of red and white wines, but also for table grapes and raisins. Grapes have been cultivated for millennia in Europe without any use of crop protection chemicals, and their levels of horizontal resistance to all their old-encounter diseases was entirely adequate. However, they had little resistance to Phylloxera, downy mildew, and other new encounter parasites that originated in the New World. It is probably impossible to improve the horizontal resistance of the classic wine grapes to these new encounter parasites without an unacceptable loss of wine quality. However, Phylloxera is controlled by grafting classic vines on to wild vine rootstocks that are resistant, but this leads to a significant loss of yield. There is scope for amateur breeders to breed Vitis vinifera rootstocks with horizontal resistance to Phylloxera.

Plant Pests and Their Control

Pest Diagram For Small Plan

Birds are especially destructive on ripening fruits of all kinds. In the home garden they can strip the fruits from a cherry tree in a few hours. Robins are among the worst offenders. The only practical solution to this problem is to cover plants with bird netting as the fruits start to ripen. Devices to scare birds away may work for a while, but birds soon become accustomed to them. Commercial growers have sprayed cherry trees and grapes with Mesural to keep birds away from ripening fruits. Check with your County Agricultural Extension Agent to see if this chemical is approved for this purpose in your state.

Flower Gardens Shrubs and Trees

I have also found very little information on flowering plants and trees grown for aesthetic rather than practical purposes, such as are a common feature of modern Greek monastery courtyards (Fig. 18). There are some archaeological indications at the monastery of Khirbet-ed-Deir in the Judean desert that vines were grown on a trellis to provide shade for the courtyard,62 and the Lausiac History of Palladios describes a grapevine that grew all over the church at the Douka monastery near Jericho.63

Macrodactylus uniformis Horn Coleoptera Scarabaeidae

White Grubs

Known mostly as a pest of rose, peony and grapes, rose chafer adults feed on a wide variety of plants, including such vegetables as asparagus, bean, beet, cabbage, corn, pepper, rhubarb, sweet potato, tomato, and perhaps others. Apple, blackberry, cherry, grape, peach, pear, plum and strawberry are among the fruits damaged. Flowers injured include dahlia, daisy, foxglove, geranium, hollyhock, iris, hydrangea, peony, poppy, and rose, though foxglove apparently is poisonous to beetles. Trees such as elm, magnolia, oak, sassafras, sumac and others also are attacked even conifers are not immune to attack. Larvae attack the roots of grasses and other plants. The dietary of western rose chafer is poorly documented, but apparently is similar to rose chafer. mostly in areas with sandy soil, with beetles infrequent elsewhere. Damage to fruit causes the greatest degree of alarm among gardeners, though flower blossoms also may be shredded. Rose chafer is not generally known as a...

Vine weevil Otiorhyncus sulcatus

Vine Weevil Life Cycle

The larva stage is the most damaging, eating away roots of crops such as cyclamen and begonias in greenhouses, primulas, strawberries, young conifers and vines outdoors, causing above-ground symptoms similar to root diseases such as vascular wilt. Close inspection of the plant's root zone will, however, quickly show the unmistakable white grubs (see Figure 14.18). The adults may eat out neat holes or leaf edges of the foliage of hosts such as rhododendron, raspberry and grapes, and many herbaceous perennials (see Figure 14.18). Several related species, e.g. the clay-coloured weevil (Otiorhyncus singularis) cause similar damage to that of the vine weevil.

Crown gall Agrobacterium tumifasciens

This bacterium affects apples, grapes, peaches, roses, Euonymus and many herbaceous plants. The disease is first seen just above ground level as a swollen, cancer-like structure (often about 5 cm in size) growing out of the stem. It may occasionally cause serious damage, but usually is not a very important problem. The bacterium is able to survive well in soils, and infects the plant through small wounds in the roots.

Training and pruning

Grape Trellis Kniffen System

The training and pruning of grapes are matters of critical importance. The main purposes of training are to keep the large, fast-growing vines under control, to facilitate care and harvesting, and to expose all parts of the plants to the sun. The purposes of pruning are to maintain vigorous growth, to provide new canes for the next year, and to limit the number of fruit-producing buds so that the vines do not produce too much small fruit of inferior quality. Various training systems are used for all three types of grapes. American bunch grapes Four-Arm Kniffin system This is the most popular method of training American bunch grapes since it gives good production and requires little summer tying of the vines.

Currants And Gooseberries

GRAPES Interest in growing grapes in the area is on the rise. Home wine making provides the chief impetus for growing grapes. Grapes are of two general types the American and the European, or French Hybrid, grapes. American grapes have largely been developed from American species. They have a slip-skin and are used for juice, jelly, and wine. Most European grapes are table grapes. They may or may not be seedless, and their skin adheres to the flesh. They can also be used for wine making. Most grapes, including American and European types, are tender and must have winter protection. 'Beta' is hardy without winter protection, and most years the 'Worden' and 'Concord' can be grown without protection. 'Beta', 'Concord', 'Delaware', 'Edelweiss', 'Swenson Red', and 'Worden' are all popular varieties of American grapes. 'DeChaunac', 'Foch', and 'Seyval' are the three recommended varieties of French hybrid grapes, although with winter protection and the proper site, most varieties can be...

Propagation From Cuttings

Apple Tree Micro Propagation

Grafting is a method that involves the combination of the rootstock from one plant to the scion (stem cutting) of a second. The rootstock is usually from plants that have been well established in the orchard or vineyard. They may have excellent disease resistance or some other characteristic that makes them vigorous growers. The rootstock includes the roots and the lower portion of the stem. The scion is from a plant that produces a fruit with a new trait that the grower wants to reproduce. In a successful graft, the vascular systems will combine and the scion will grow and set fruit on the host's rootstock. This procedure is often used with apple trees and grapevines.

Supporting and training your fruit

Pendelbogen

To keep your harvest off the dirt and in the air where it's able to develop freely and enjoy good air circulation and plentiful sunshine, supports may be in order. A wide variety is available, depending on the fruit you want to grow. Figure 15-3 shows two different ways to train grapes with supports. There are several methods of training grapes.

Pruning and Training Young Vines

Four Arm Kniffin System

Grapes will grow on just about anything. In the wild, they climb large trees to get their leaves into the sun. But in home plantings, you need to rein in that vigor by pruning and training the plants to keep them manageable and productive. You can train grapes to grow on an existing arbor, fence, or other structure. If you are starting from scratch, a good trellising method is the four-arm Kniffin system (see Figures 16 and 17). No matter what system you use to support your vines, the principles are the same. There are several things to keep in mind Grapes bear fruit from buds on one-year-old wood that elongate into new shoots. Figure 17. Prune grapevines hard during the dormant season. Often, you need to remove 90 percent of the new growth. Figure 17. Prune grapevines hard during the dormant season. Often, you need to remove 90 percent of the new growth.

Cultivate Fruitbearing Plants

Fruit-eating bird species flock to backyards rich with native and cultivated fruits, so grow fruit trees, berry-bearing shrubs and grapevines. Cardinals, cedar waxwings and grosbeaks crave cherries (Prunus), while pears and plums nourish robins and thrashers. Grapes' late-summer fruit provides a gorgefest for robins, mockingbirds and scarlet tanagers some 85 bird species in all. Blackberry and raspberry bushes supply tasty fruits (and thorny cover) to mockingbirds and bobwhites.

Purchasing or Propagating Vines

Purchase grapevines from a reputable nursery. Place orders early to ensure that the desired cultivars will be available. Request that the grapevines arrive in early spring, and plant as soon as possible after they arrive. Figure 15. You can propagate your own grape vines by making cuttings from dormant one-year-old canes. Figure 15. You can propagate your own grape vines by making cuttings from dormant one-year-old canes.

Harvest

Grapes Grapes have the longest history of all the cultivated fruits and are among the most widely grown. The fruits are used to make juice, jellies, wine, and pies, and the leaves can be used in cooking. Grapes also are delicious eaten fresh, and their popularity has increased since the development of new seedless table grape cultivars for the Northeast and the Southeast.

Pests and diseases

Grapes 1 The art of growing grapes, or viticulture, has a long and illustrious history. The vine grows wild in the temperate regions of North America, western Asia, southern Europe and parts of North Africa and it is thought to have originated in Asia Minor. The grapes most commonly grown by home gardeners in the northern part of the United States are the so-called American, or bunch, grapes, descendants of wild grapes. The blue, black, green, red and yellow berries usually have slip-skins (separable from the pulp) and ripen from mid-summer on. They are largely self-fruitful. Although American bunch grapes can be grown from zones 3-10, they do best in zones 5-7. Muscadine grapes are generally grown in the South (zones 7-9). These form much larger vines up to 90 ft long and produce fruits singly or in loose clusters. Several self-fruitful varieties are available but most varieties are self-unfruitful. Since the fruit of self-fruitful varieties is inferior to that of the self-unfruitful...

Climate Concerns

During cold winters with little snow cover, unmulched strawberry plants often sustain winter injury. Although some grape cultivars such as Concord can withstand temperatures around -20 degrees F, vinifera-type grapevines survive weather this cold only if they are buried for the winter. Carefully check hardiness information in nursery catalogs before ordering plants to make sure that they are winter hardy in your area and are well matched to the length of your growing season. If your location is prone to late spring frosts, look for late-flowering varieties. The fruits of fall-bearing raspberries and early-blooming grapes are more likely to ripen in areas that have early fall frosts.

Thinning

Thinning of the fruit is recommended for vinifera grapes, but not for American and Muscadine grapes. Viniferas are very heavy producers, and thinning is needed to improve fruit size, thinning of varieties with very large or compact fruit clusters is done by removing individual berries immediately after fruit set. On varieties with loose or straggly clusters, remove some of the immature flower clusters appearing with the new growth in the spring.

Gibberellic acid

Also known as gibberellin, this compound was originally isolated from a fungus (Gibberella fujikuroi.) but is now known to occur in all plants. Many different gibberellins, called GAi, GA2, etc., have been identified. Gibberellins are plant growth substances that tend to affect the entire plant. They stimulate growth and have many commercial applications such as breaking potato seed tuber dormancy, increasing celery stalk length, suppressing seed formation in grapes, increasing the size of ornamental flowers, and delaying fruit maturity.

Downy mildews

Plant parasitic fungi of the Order Peronosporales, so called because they produce a very light, white mildew on the external surfaces of the plant lesions, usually on the lower leaf surfaces. The best known members are potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) and downy mildew of grapes (Plasmopora viticola). Downy mildews were originally controlled by Bordeaux mixture. Dried blood

Crop Vulnerability

Historically, two of the worst crop vulnerabilities were the potatoes of Europe prior to the introduction of blight and Colorado beetle. Two more were the European wine grapes susceptible to Phylloxera and downy mildew, which were both new-encounter parasites accidentally imported from the New World.

Citrus

Otherwise, citrus breeding is rather like grape breeding (see 11.19.6). There are usually plenty of fertile, non-nucellar seeds, but the variation among them is enormous, and it is difficult to find a new seedling that equals an existing cultivar, let alone surpasses it. Improvements in quality are thus likely to be difficult. However, like grapes, citrus has been plagued by new encounter parasites. A breeding program might be justified on the grounds of attempting to accumulate horizontal resistance in order to reduce or eliminate the use of crop protection chemicals. But such a program will be difficult, and it is a task for specialists. A rootstock resistance breeding program could be very useful, and would be within the capacity of a plant breeding club made up of experienced members, such as citrus farmers who do their own grafting.

Golden nematode

The technique in which a scion is biologically joined to a stock. The stock is usually a horizontally resistant rootstock, and this provides a means of controlling root and trunk diseases. The scion is usually a high quality but susceptible cultivar. The classic example of this control method was the grafting of classic wine grapes on to American rootstocks in order to control Phylloxera. Occasionally, a double graft is used, as with a susceptible rubber trunk being grafted to both resistant rootstocks and leaf blight-resistant crowns Other uses of

Musa sapientum

The Latin name usually given to the edible bananas and plantains (but not the Fe'i banana). Both the taxonomy and the common usage terms are confused. A banana is a sweet fruit that is eaten raw and ripe. A plantain is a starchy fruit that is usually eaten cooked and either ripe or unripe. As a fruit, bananas are second only to grapes in commercial importance.

Maintenance

Climbing plants need to be provided with a structure to climb. Fruiting plants are more prone to disease if they are lying in the soil. Crops such as peas, beans, squash, and cucumbers can be trained to climb lengths of nylon string that have been attached to a wooden frame, or on a trellis. Crops such as raspberries and grapes need to have support structures as well. Tomatoes usually

Blight

In 1882, Millardet, in France, discovered the fungicide that he called bouillie bordellaise, or Bordeaux mixture, which consisted of a mixture of copper sulphate solution and newly slaked lime. He used it to control downy mildew of grapes, which had also been accidentally imported from the New World, and was threatening the wine industry with ruin. And it was quickly discovered that this fungicide would also control potato blight. This made potato cultivation easier and more profitable. But it ruined potato breeding. This was because the breeders could now spray their screening populations, and this made the breeding very much easier. All the most famous potato varieties were produced during this period which lasted another forty years.

Master Charts

Ecology Action continues to study the spacings and other growing information for grains, fodder crops, fibers, bush and dwarf fruit trees, other tree crops, berries and grapes, and compost crops. As testing continues, the information is revised and the chance of error reduced. (A good explanation of the information in these charts is given in the planning section of The Sustainable Vegetable Garden.)

Dizygotic

These changes occurred thousands of years ago, and the descendants of those forms have been in continuous cultivation ever since. Ancient domesticators often achieved results that modern plant breeding cannot improve as, for example, with pineapples, bananas, olives, and the classic wine grapes.

Small Fruit

17.2.2.2 Grapevine Possingham 1988 Grando et al. 1996). The most renowed species is Vitis vinifera L., the European or bunch grape, which was domesticated 5000 years ago in Asia Minor or Armenia (Grando et al. 1996). In 2006 about 67 million t of grapes were produced on 7.5 million ha worldwide (http faostat.fao.org). Since the first transgenic grape plant was reported in 1990 (Mullins et al. 1990), a lot of successful transformations have been reported (for a review, see Yamamoto et al. 2003). Early attempts to transform grape using Agrobacterium tumefaciens met with difficulties and a biolistic transformation using coated microprojectiles was established and improved (Hebert et al. 1993, 2005a Kikkert et al. 1996 Scorza et al. 1995a, b, 1996). Presently, Agrobacterium-mediated methods are the predominantly employed protocols for grape transformation worldwide (Perl et al. 1996). The use of high-quality embryogenic cultures has allowed the transformation of grape to become routine. A...

Books Directories

Solviva How to Grow 500,000 on One Acre and Peace on Earth. Trailblazer Press, Martha's Vineyard, MA. 230 p. This publication features organic vegetable production in a solar greenhouse. Solviva refers to Edey's award-winning solar-powered and animal-heated greenhouse on Martha's Vineyard unfortunately no longer in operation . The book discusses greenhouse design, function, construction, and management. Ms. Edey includes many energy-efficient designs such as water walls and growtubes. She also tells how much everything costs, which is invaluable for market gardeners. Although her main crop was lettuce, her techniques could be applied in any greenhouse. Solviva is available for 35 (plus shipping handling). Order by mail or on-line from GFM Books P.O. Box 3747 Lawrence, KS 66046 800-307-8949 www.growingformarket. com

Budding and grafting

Grafted plants are commonly used in top-fruit, grapes, roses and amenity shrubs with novel shapes and colours. Rootstocks resistant to soil-borne pests and disease are sometimes used when the desired cultivars would succumb if grown on their own roots, e.g. grapevines, tomatoes and cucumbers grown in border soils. Grafting is not usually attempted in monocotyledons, since they do not produce continuous areas of secondary cambium tissue suitable for successful graft-unions.

Wind damage

In windy areas, wind breaks such as poplars help reduce economic losses. Plant wind breaks to provide 200 to 250 feet of protection downwind. Make sure wind breaks are not planted close enough to the vineyard rows to reduce yield of the kiwifruit through competition for light and water.

Plant quarantine

The microscopic fungus that causes downy mildew of grapes. This was a new encounter disease , as it originated in the New World and was taken to Europe on rootstocks of wild American grapes intended for grafting to control Phylloxera. This was the disease in which Millardet discovered Bordeaux mixture. In 1822, he found that vines next to the public road at the Ch teau Beaucaillon, in the M doc district of Bordeaux were free of the disease, and he discovered that they had been spattered with a poisonous-looking substance to discourage passers-by from eating the grapes. This substance was the mixture of copper sulphate and lime that we now call Bordeaux mixture.

Install Nest Boxes

Carolina Chickadee Protection

Pile on protection by building a brush pile. Stack stumps, branches and woody clippings in a remote site. Songbirds use them to evade bad weather and predators. Fast-track a protective canopy by growing grape vines (Vitis), sweet autumn clematis (C emate terniflora') and honeysuckle (,Lonicera) over an arbor. Evergreens supply year-round protection. Roosting birds seek Eastern red cedar's (Juniperus virginiana) dense, prickly branches.

Old clones

The clones of the classic wine grapes have been cultivated for centuries without any crop protection chemicals. It must be appreciated that all the serious parasites of grapes are new-encounter parasites that were introduced relatively recently from the New World. These include phylloxera, Plasmopora, Uncinula, and Guignardia. Before these parasites were taken to Europe, in the nineteenth century, the classic wine grapes had adequate levels of horizontal resistance to all the locally important parasites. The classic wine grapes also have a quality of crop product that is unsurpassed. This suggests that there need be no conflict between quality and horizontal resistance. Grapes are deciduous and the leaf parasites have discontinuous pathosystems. If vertical subsystems occur in the wild, they did not impose any limits to the level of horizontal resistance in these ancient clones. Clones of figs (Ficus carica) have been cultivated in the Mediterranean area since antiquity. Pliny the...

Pollination

Kiwifruit flowers are pollinated mainly by insects, although wind may play a minor role. Honeybees are the main pollinator used in kiwifruit vineyards. Kiwifruit flowers do not produce nectar and are relatively unattractive to bees. About three to four hives per acre are needed to adequately pollinate kiwifruit. Place hives in the vineyard no sooner than 10 percent bloom of the female vines.

Set Up a Trellis

Like paths, trellises add architecture and functionality to many yards and make good weekend projects. The kind of trellis you choose and how securely you position it depends on what you plan to grow over it. Climbing roses, climbing hydrangea, wisteria, and grapevines are quite heavy use stout wood, heavy-duty plastic, or cast iron for these, and plunge the legs deep into the ground so the trellis doesn't wobble. Clematis and morning glories can go on lighter structures. See Chapter 12.

Choosing Cultivars

Home gardeners can choose from a wide variety of grape cultivars, each differing in time of ripening, productivity, vigor, hardiness, fruit size, color, and flavor. The grapes most widely cultivated in the Northeast are derived primarily from Vitis labrusca and are referred to as American bunch grapes. The following cultivars of this species produce well in much of New York State Delaware one of the highest-quality American bunch grapes, both for eating fresh and for making white wine. It ripens two weeks before Concord. The tender skin of the red berries, however, is subject to cracking, and the leaves are susceptible to fungal diseases. It requires a deep, fertile, well-drained soil for satisfactory vine growth. Vinifera grapes are too sensitive to cold to be grown in the coldest areas of the Northeast. Baco Noir and De Chaunac are very vigorous red wine grape hybrids, but they require cluster thinning to keep plants from producing too much fruit and weakening the vines. Aurore is...

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