Pteridophytes Ferns and Ferns Allies

Plants with a regular alternation between a gameto-phytic (sexual) and sporophytic (asexual) phase. Spo-rophytes with leaves, axes and roots (the latter missing in Psilotaceae), and with well-developed conducting tissues. The leaves scale-like, with a single vascular strand, or markedly compound and described as fronds. Stems protostelic, solenostelic, or dictyostel-ic, sometimes polystelic some with limited secondary thickening. Sporangia thick- or thin-walled, homospo-rous or heterosporous,...

Conservation of Pteridophytes

General References for Pteridophytes Pteridophytes have evolved to fill almost every ecological niche but the greatest species diversity is clearly found in the tropical rainforest. The rapid disappearance of this biome throughout the world with many of their pteridophyte species yet undiscovered, let alone described, is of great concern. It is fortunate that the richer montane forests are the last to disappear. Sustainable logging unfortunately takes the mature trees with large canopies...

Introduction to Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms

There is a broad consensus about the delimitation of vascular plants as against thallophytes, and their major subdivisions are well-established. Living pteridophytes are conveniently subdivided into true ferns and fern allies, the latter formed by lycopods, horsetails and psilotates. Likewise, among gymnosperms the separation of a microphyllous coniferophytalean line encompassing conifers and ginkgoids from a megaphyl-lous cycadophytalean line has hardly been challenged since the time of...

Chemosystematic Overview of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms

H. T. Zocher, and K. Kubitzki On the following pages we have organized, in a systematic context, the mass of micromolecular information available for pteridophytes and gymnosperms, with the aim of investigating, from the chemosystematic point of view, the relationships among them. A complete literature survey for chemical constituents of these plants has become a task of gigantic magnitude. This became apparent from our effort in surveying all relevant...

Conclusion

The analysis of the distribution of chemical characters shows remarkable agreement between primitive pteridophytes fern allies plus ancient fern families and gymnosperms. This applies to the widespread occurrence of biflavonoids in the Psilotaceae and Selaginel-laceae, on the one hand, and in the Cycadales and conifers, on the other. In all these groups biflavonoids are based on apigenin and show identical coupling patterns. Also, the rareness of flavonols, flavanones and flavanonols in the...

Blechnaceae

Pteridoblechnum

Kramer with the collaboration of T. C. Chambers and E. Hennipman Blechnaceae C. Presl Copeland, Gen. Fil. 155 1947 . Blechneae C. Presl, Epimel. Bot. 103 1851 Blechnaceae . Stenochlaenaceae Ching, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16 4 18 1978 . Terrestrial or epilithic, occasionally scandent, rarely epiphytic ferns of small to large size. Stem creeping, erect, or scandent, radially dictyostelic, scaly. Petioles aggregated to remote, usually, well-developed, adaxial-ly grooved, with several vascular...

Preface

The study of organismic diversity has witnessed an unprecedented upswing in the last two decades. The empirical basis of botanical systematics has been broadened far beyond the realm of macromorphological traits on which systematists have based their decisions for more than 200 years. Electron microscopy and phytochemistry have become standard tools, rendering evidence from micromorphology and micromolecules accessible to systematic research. The analysis of truly biological phenomena, like the...

Ginkgoatae Pinatae

Kramer 145 Grammitidaceae. B. S. Parris 153 Hymenophyllaceae. K. Iwatsuki 157 Hymenophyllopsidaceae. K. U. Kramer and D. B. Lellinger 163 Lomariopsidaceae. K. U. Kramer 164 Lophosoriaceae. K. U. Kramer 170 Loxomataceae. K. U. Kramer 172 Marattiaceae. J. M. Camus 174 Marsileaceae. K. U. Kramer 180 Matoniaceae. K. U. Kramer . . 183 Metaxyaceae. K. U. Kramer 186 Monachosoraceae. K. U. Kramer 187 Nephrolepidaceae. K. U. Kramer 188 Oleandraceae. K. U. Kramer 190...

Psilotaceae

Selaginella Selaginoides Megaspores

Att 43 1887 White 1977 . Tmesipteridaceae Bertrand, Koidzumi 1939 . Small to medium-sized, often epiphytic plants with subterranean, dichotomously to laterally branched stems with endophytic mycorrhiza, without roots, and aerial, simple or dichotomously branched stems stele protostelic, or solenostelic at the transition of subterranean and aerial stem. Aerial stems green, erect or pendulous, glabrous, slender, angular to sulcate or flattened, the basal part often...

Introduction to the Treatment of Pteridophytes

The following general remarks on the taxonomy of the pteridophytes at higher levels focus on the systematics of the ferns in a narrower sense, especially on what used to be called the leptosporangiates. The relationships between the classes of the traditional pteridophytes are still very difficult to assess, if indeed they are at all related in the sense of being derived from a common source of cormophytes. These relationships can only be discussed within a palaeobotanical framework see p. 1 ,...

Notes on the Higher Level Classification of the Recent Ferns

Rhizomes Creeping Suberect Bearing

Sporophytes with roots, stems and spirally arranged leaves megaphylls . Protostelic, solenostelic or dicty-ostelic, sometimes polycyclic. Some with limited secondary thickening. Sporangia thick- or thin-walled, homosporous or heterosporous, borne on leaves. Gametophytes axial or flat, mycotrophic or autotrophic. Antherozoids multiflagellate. A firm basis for the alignment of the leptosporangiate fern families, which by themselves are becoming increasingly understood and well-defined, is still...

Cyatheaceae

Sphaeropteris Horrida

Farrenkr. 119 1827 . Large to very large, less often medium-sized, terrestrial ferns with short to usually long, erect, slender to robust, apically scaly stem stele radially symmetric, forming a complicated dictyostele with much scleren-chyma on both sides of the bundles, often with accessory medullary and cortical bundles the surface often bearing a cover of densely matted adventitious roots, rarely spiny, the leaf scars prominent, often the upper part with...

Davalliaceae

Davallia Trichomanoides

Davalliaceae Mett. ex Frank in Leunis, Syn. Pfianzenkd. ed. 2,3 1747 1877 . Gymnogrammitidaceae Ching 1966 . Epiphytic, less often epilithic or terrestrial ferns with short- to long-creeping, fleshy stem cortex little sclerotic stele a peculiar type of strongly dorsiventral dic-tyostele, only some perforations associated with leaf traces. Stem densely and permanently clothed in scales with often cordate or peltate base, the scales often toothed, sometimes clathrate surface and or margin of...

Equisetaceae

Equisetaceae

Equisetaceae L.C.Richard ex DeCandolle, Fl. Fr. 2 580. Rhizomatous perennials with stems characterized by a jointed appearance, with leaves small, whorled, and fused into a nodal sheath. A series of ridges and valleys traverse the internodes, and continue up into the nodal sheaths, alternating in successive internodes. Stems in cross-section usually with a prominent central canal and small vallecular under the valleys and carinal under the ridges canals. Reproduction by spores borne in...

Azollaceae

Anatomy Azolla

Bot. 2 77 1903 . Free floating aquatic plants with copiously branched, delicate, horizontal, protostelic stems. Roots simple, on the ventral side of the axis, chlorophyllous, solitary or in clusters, extending a short distance downward in the water, deciduous. Leaves sessile, alternate, in two rows in the dorsal side of the stem each leaf divided into two lobes, a usually somewhat smaller upper, aerial, and a lower floating lobe. The upper, aerial lobe...

Cheiropleuriaceae

Cheiropleuria

Tokyo 42 210 1928 . Terrestrial or epilithic ferns of medium size with creeping, protostelic, rarely branching stem covered with long, uniseriate, articulate hairs. Petioles more or less close, hairy at the base only, non-articulate, several-ranked, terete, upward gradually flattened and marg nate, with two vascular strands at base which divide upward. Lamina naked, strongly dimorphic sterile lamina firmly herbaceous, more or less deeply bilobed or not rarely...

Lycopodiaceae

Sporangial Position Lycopodium

Lycopodiaceae Mirbel in Lamarck amp Mirbel, Hist. Nat. Veg. Terrestrial or epiphytic, erect to pendulous herbs or climbers. Stems dichotomously branched, rarely with lateral branching, protostelic, with the xylem arranged radially or in parallel bands, or forming an almost closed cylinder Phylloglossum . Leaves simple, with one simple vein, arranged in low alternating spirals or irregular whorls, or decussate, homophyllous or heterophyllous, isophyllous or anisophyllous. Sporophylls like the...

Selaginellaceae

Selaginellaceae Leaves Upper Rows

Selaginellaceae Willk. in Willk. and Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp. 1 14 1861 Reed, Mem. Sc. Brot. 18 1-287 1966 Pichi Serm, Webbia 35 235 1982 . Terrestrial, or very occasionally epiphytic, usually perennial plants, of varied habit, with an erect or prostrate main stem and subsidiary branch systems of varying arrangements, the basal portions not differentiated into a distinct rhizome although some erect species spread by means of creeping basal branches known as sobols, which in turn give rise to...

Keys to the Families of Fern Allies and Ferns

L.Stem articulate, bearing whorled, partly fused, single-veined leaves sporangia borne several together on peltate sporophylls aggregated in strobili spores bearing hapters - Stem non-articulate leaves several-veined, or, if single-veined, not verticillate nor partly fused sporophylls not aggregated in strobili, or, if so, each one bearing only one sporangium spores lacking hapters 2 2. Sporangia enclosed in sporocarps, or else borne several to many together on the lamina 6 - Sporangia borne...

Isoetaceae

Stylites Andicola

PI. 69 1829 as Isoeti-neae Reed 1953 Fuchs 1962 . Terrestrial or aquatic plants, either evergreen, or in seasonally wet habitats, losing their leaves in the dry periods. Stem covered by an irregular cortex layer which sloughs off periodically as new layers are formed from a secondary meristem below, often producing bulbils at the edges of epidermal lesions, usually erect, elongate or short and corm-like, bilobed or tri-lobed in transection, or more rarely...

Glossary for Pteridophytes

Line Drawing Fern Venation

Terms applying to pteridophytes that may not be generally known, or applied in the following in a special way, or in a few cases newly coined. Allantodioid of the indusium an elongate indusium initially completely wrapped around the sorus, which is of the same shape, and strongly convex, attached at the anterior margin, at maturity patent or reflexed and then approximately asple-nioid, or sometimes breaking see Fig. 68 D . Anadromous of the dissection pattern of the lamina or of the venation...