Ancestral Characters and Basal Taxa

The lack of a convincing dicot sister taxon to the monocotyledons makes outgroup comparison difficult in morphological analyses and presents problems in rooting and identification of basal monocotyledons. Although many authors previously considered Dioscoreales to be the basal monocot taxa on the basis of their dicotlike net-veined leaves and other characters see below , it has been demonstrated that reticulate venation lias evolved several times in monocotyledons, probably in response to shady...

General References

Siebelement-Plastiden, Phloem-Protein und Evolution der Bl tenpflanzen II. Monokotyledonen. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 94 647-662. Czaja, A. Th. 1978. Structure of starch grains and the classification of vascular plant families. Taxon 27 463-470. Daumann, E. 1970. Das Bl tennektarium der Monokotyledonen unter besonderer Ber cksichtigung seiner systematischen und phylogenetischen Bedeutung. Feddes Rep. 80 463-590. Fr lich, D., Barthlott, W. 1988. Mikromorphologie der...

Preface

When Rolf Dahlgren and I embarked on preparing this book series, Rolf took prime responsibility for monocotyledons, which had interested him for a long time. After finishing his comparative study and family classification of the monocots, he devoted much energy to the acquisition and editing of family treatments for the present series. After his untimely death, Peter Goldblatt, who had worked with him, continued to handle further incoming monocot manuscripts until, in the early 1990s, his other...

Contents

Tillich 1 Epicuticular Wax infrastructure W. Barthlott and I. Theisen 20 K. Kubitzki, P.J. Rudall, and M.C. Chase 23 Floral Biology S. Conspectus of Families Treated in This Volume K. GENERAL Acanthochlamydaceae P.-C. Kao and K. Kubitzki 55 Agapanthaceae K. Agavaceae S. Alliaceae K. Alstroemeriaceae E. Amaryllidaceae A.W. Meerow and D.A. Snijman 83 Anemarrhenaceae J.G. Conran and P.J. Rudall Ill Anthericaceae J.G. Aphyllanthaceae J.G. Asparagaceae K. Kubitzki...

Conspectus of Families Treated in this Volume

Rhizomatous leaves equitant or flat raphides usually lacking flowers hypogynous stamens introrse nectar secretion, where present, from carpels endosperm formation Helobial chromosomes very small 0.7-1.7 Am long . Only one family. 10 72, temperate regions of Northern Hemisphere and northern S America Nartheciaceae Herbaceous or woody raphides often present silica bodies lacking excl. part of orchids stomata anomocytic excl. Aloe, orchids pro parte, Ripogonum vessels present in the roots and less...

The Perianth

The monocot perigone, main site of advertisement in the zoophilous members, consists with few exceptions of two alternating trimerous tepal whorls. In the opinion of Leinfellner 1963 , it is, at least in the Liliaceae, staminodial in origin and thus would represent true petals. The majority of morphological criteria, however, argue for an origin from bracts of vaginal character this hypothesis is advocated here. For the great similarity of certain tepals of the inner whorl with true petals...

How Does Najadaceae Adapt

Having ranked for a long time as a taxonomic equivalent of the dicots, the monocots are now considered as representing a clade nested within the basal dicotyledonous angiosperms. Nevertheless, the monocotyledonous clade stands out from all the remaining angiosperm lineages by both its uniformity on the one hand and its high degree of diversity on the other shoot organization, leaf structure, and the conformation of floral organs are much more homogeneous than within most dicotyledons. In...

Brief History of Monocot Classification

John Ray in his Historia Plantarum 1686-1704 was the first botanist to recognize cotyledon number as a useful means of subdividing flowering plants Bancroft 1914 . Although Linnaeus in his Philosophia Botanica 1751 did not explicitly mention this distinction between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, it was taken up by all later botanists. In most angiosperm classifications from Jussieu 1789 to Engler and Prantl 1887-89 , monocotyledons were arranged in a position intermediate between...

Micromorphology of Monocotyledonous Waxes

Stomata And Kiwifruit

The ultrastructure of monocotyledonous epicuticular waxes characterizes major groups of the monocotyledons. In particular, two wax types, more or less restricted to the monocotyledons, are of high systematic significance. The first wax type consists of parallel oriented platelets, which occasionally form striking patterns around idioblasts and stomata Fig. 17A,B it is called the Con-vallaria type, and is found in Nartheciaceae in Liliales Alstroemeriaceae, Colchicaceae, Luzuria-gaceae,...

List of Contributors

Institut f r Allgemeine Botanik und Herbarium, Universit t Hamburg, Ohnhorststr. 18, 22609 Hamburg, Germany Botanisches Institut der Universit t Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, 53115 Bonn, Germany Institut f r Allgemeine Botanik und Herbarium, Universit t Hamburg, Ohnhorststr. 18, 22609 Hamburg, Germany Botanischer Garten, Menzinger Str. 65, 80638 M nchen, Germany Department of Botany, University of Texas at Austin, Austin Texas 78713-7614, USA Department of Plant Taxonomy, Agricultural...

Major Clades of the Monocotyledons

A new higher-level classification of monocotyledons is not the primary aim of this book. This outline is therefore presented as the current state of our understanding of broader monocotyledon relationships Fig. 19 . Although the composition and relationships of some groups are well resolved and clear, some remain uncertain e.g., Typhales see below and will inevitably change as data are added and new analyses undertaken. The work of Tillich 1985 and particularly Grayum 1987 have brought into...

Origin of Monocotyledons

Sieve Cell Plastid Monocot

Since the time of Hallier 1905 and Bessey 1915 , the origin of monocotyledons from a ranalean an cestor has been widely accepted for a differing view see Burger 1981 . On the basis of our increasing knowledge of the ranalean dicotyledons and their characters, Huber 1977 and others stressed the idea that the primary division in angiosperms is the one that separates the ranalean dicots plus the monocots from the remaining dicots eudicots , a concept in part supported by molecular studies e.g.,...

Monocotyledonous Organization Possibilities and Limitations

The great majority of the monocotyledons lack a cambium. This is, according to Holttum 1955 , the basic limitation for the construction of the shoot system. Since there is no cambium in the primary root, it soon becomes too small in diameter to conduct the nutrients and water needed for the growth of the shoot system. Thus it is necessary to produce shoot-borne roots early during the seedling stage and establishment growth Tomlinson and Esler 1973 . At the same time, the axis undergoes a marked...

Acanthochlamydaceae

Stamen Embryology

Sichuan. 9 483 1989 . Dwarf caespitose perennial herb rhizome short roots dense, thin and long, fibriform leaves acerose, dorsiventral, ventrally subsemiorbicular and 2-canaliculate, dorsally flattened and 1-canaliculate, sheathed at the base. Inflorescence a compound capitulum on a scape arising from the rhizome, at the base usually surrounded by 3 leaflike aristate bracts, the peduncle bearing 5-8 few-flowered capitula, the flowers subtended by aristate...

Breeding Systems

Monoecy, dioecy, and polygamy are scattered over many orders, but are most frequent among the anemophilous and hydrogamous families. Some small families are entirely dioecious Asparaga-ceae, Behniaceae, Stemonaceae, Hanguanaceae, and Cymodoceaceae. Dioecy is frequent 75 of species in the hydrogamous Alismatales Cox and Knox 1989 wind-pollinated dioecious genera occur in the Cyperales and Juncales. Among zoophilous taxa, there are dioecious genera or species in Dioscoreaceae, Smilacaceae,...

Zoophilic Pollination a Visual Attraction

About two thirds of monocot species are adapted to pollination by animals, mostly insects. As in dicots, optical signaling by colorful semaphylls, one of the main secondary attractants, is usually a function of a single or both tepal whorls, but sometimes partly or exclusively provided by exserted filaments Haemanthus, Xero-nema , staminodes Cyclanthaceae , or stylodia Iris . These showy flowers will here be termed phaneranthous. Aggregates of phaneran-thous florets form conspicuous pseudanthic...

Alstroemeriaceae

Alstroemeria Ligtu

Alstroemeriaceae Dumort., Anal. fam. pi. 57, 58 1829 . Erect or twining, herbaceous, mostly glabrous, rhizomatous perennials with storage roots or rarely one sp. annual herbs. Indumentum where present of 1- to 4-celled unbranched hairs. Phyllotaxis spiral. Leaves evenly dispersed on an elongated stem or crowded at its upper end, or on short stems as a rosette near to the ground. Leaves simple, entire, parallel- or arched-veined, thin or somewhat fleshy, generally twisted at the base and leaf...

Alliaceae

Transmission Tissue Pistil

PI. 32 1858 , nom. cons. Liliaceae subfam. Allioideae Engl. 1887 . Amaryllidaceae tribus Allieae Hutchinson 1934 . Milulaceae Traub, Plant Life 28 129 1972 . Acaulescent or short-stemmed biennial or perennial geophytes alliaceous odour often present stem usually swollen and often forming a bulb, tuberous rhizome or rarely a corm, enveloped by sheathing, dry leaves or leaf bases. Leaves linear, filiform, lanceolate or rarely ovate, flat, angular, terete, or...

Aphananthy and Abiotic Pollination a Anemophily

About 17000 species, about one third of the monocots, display abiotic pollination by wind or water. Habitual anemophily is characteristic of the Cyperales, Juncales, Poales, Typhales, and Pandanus. It occurs in genera of palms and the Alismatales. It has also been reported in taxa scattered over other orders, but most of these cases are weakly supported Navia Bromeliaceae , Paris Trilliaceae , Acorus. The occurrence of anemophilous taxa within predominantly animal-pollinated genera is much...

Special Modes of Shoot Organization in Monocotyledons

Nypa Fruticans

It is well-known that in Musaceae 1 nd Veratrum successively embracing sheaths of Fig. 8A-K. Collar and root formation in monocotyiedonous seedlings. A-C Galtonia candicans. A Seedling with fully developed cotyledon, the furrowed surface of the primary root indicating root contraction. B Cotyledon base, detail of A. C Same at a somewhat later stage, the first shoot born root piercing its coleorhiza. D Allium ascalonicum, the first shoot born root emerging. E Aphyllanthes...

Agavaceae

Pollen Yucca Elephantipes

Agavaceae Endl, Enchiridion 105 1841 , nom. cons. Plants small to gigantic, perennial, monocarpic or polycarpic, acaulescent or arborescent, sometimes caespitose. Roots fibrous or fleshy rhizomes spreading or thick and upright. Leaves rosulate, spiral, annual or long-lived, linear, lanceolate, elliptic or ovate, fibrous, rigid or flexible, the texture thin, thickened and hard, or succulent, pale to dark green, often glaucous, maculate in some species the apex with a short or long soft or...

Epicuticular Wax Ultrastructure

Over the past decades, systematically relevant information on structure and composition of the plant cuticle based on SEM studies have been published survey in Barthlott 1990 . The cuticles of the majority of higher plants are covered with epicuticular wax secretions. They often cause a glaucous appearance. Epicuticular waxes occur throughout bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymno-sperms, and angiosperms. They are chemically multicomponent mixtures, in which a particular compound or class es of...

ISBN Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Flowering plants, Monocotyledons Lilianae except Orchidaceae volume editor, K. Kubitzki in collaboration with H. Huber et al. . p. cm. - The families and genera of vascular plants 3 Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 3-540-64060-6 hardcover alk. paper 1. Liliales - Classification. I. Kubitzki, Klaus, 1933- . II. Huber, Herbert, Pro Dr. rer. nat. III. Series. QK495.A14F55 1998 This work is subject to copyright. All rights...

Seedling Organization in Monocotyledons

Poaceae Cyperaceae

Seedlings of monocotyledons, without any exception, possess only 1 cotyledon. This cotyledon represents 1 leaf. There is no morphological or developmental indication of either syncotyly or anisocotyly Tillich 1992 . The cotyledon is sub- Fig. 4A- F. Modes of participation of leaf base shaded and hyperphyll white in the leaf construction of monocotyledons. A Unifacial hyperphyll cylindrical or ensiform , not differentiated in petiole and lamina e.g., uncus spp. . B Hyperphyll with unifacial...

Leaf Morphology in Monocotyledons

Alismatidae

At a primordial developmental stage foliage leaves in angiosperms are subdivided into a proximal leaf base and a distal leaf part. The distal part Oberblatt was recently named hyperphyll see Weberling 1989 45 similarly, the proximal part Unterblatt can be called a hypophyll. In many monocotyledons the hypophyll tends to be much more extended and contributes a far greater part to the leaf than in dicotyledons, but there are several exceptions to this rule. The discussion on the interpretation of...

Underground and Storage Organs ill Monocotyledons

Root Grapevines

Both are creeping shoots, mid they are not always clearly distinguished. The runner is a slender axis which serves vegetative propagation. It often has elongated internodes Fig. 12A-I. Bulbs in monocotyledons. A, B Shoot types in Tillandsia. A Pseudobulb e.g., ' '. bulbosa . B Bulb proper e.g., T. argentea . C-G Bulb structure in Allium. C, D A. cepa. C Bulb in longisection, showing the apical bud b and two lateral buds shaded . D Flowering bulb in cross-section,...