Bittrich And Kuhn In Kubitzki

This volume - the first of this series dealing with angiosperms - comprises the treatments of 73 families, representing three major blocks of the dicotyledons: magnoliids, centrosperms, and hamamelids. These blocks are generally recognized as subclasses in modern textbooks and works of reference. We consider them a convenient means for structuring the hundreds of dicotyledon families, but are far from taking them at face value for biological, let alone mono-phyletic entities.

Angiosperm taxa above the rank of family are little consolidated, as is easily seen when comparing various modern classifications. Genera and families, in contrast, are comparatively stable units - and they are important in practical terms. The genus is the taxon most frequently recognized as a distinct entity even by the layman, and generic names provide the key to all information available about plants. The family is, as a rule, homogeneous enough to conveniently summarize biological information, yet comprehensive enough to avoid excessive redundance. The emphasis in this series is, therefore, primarily on families and genera.

Our knowledge of the order of living things has widened gradually over time, from the pre-Darwinian era to the present. Most families and genera were recognized and described long before the majority of their members were known. They have grown through the association of plants with similar characteristics. Explicit taxonomic methodologies have undergone a substantial development only in the last decades, and today a strictly formalized phylo-genetic approach is widely considered to produce the most meaningful results. Unfortunately, however, only a minor fraction of the vascular plants to date have been studied by such methods, whose application eventually may lead to changes in the circumscription of genera and even families.

Recently, the analysis of the hereditary material itself has become a powerful tool for testing proposed relationships, and in subsequent volumes of this series molecular data will certainly be of increasing importance. It is unlikely, however, that it would have been possible to acquire an accurate view of the basic structure of living things by relying on molecular data alone. Conventionally based classifications have therefore been, and for practical reasons will continue to be, indispensable: they provide the basic scheme of reference without which no meaningful systematic questions could be asked, and without which no identification of plants would be possible, with the obvious consequences for information retrieval and the repeatability of observations and experiments.

The treatments presented in this volume attempt to reflect the present state of the art. The long preparation time of such a book makes it inevitable that some accounts of groups that are being actively studied may be outdated by the time they appear. Many contributions are based on novel, original work that have led to revised classifications. I would like to express my warmest thanks to all contributors whose cooperation, understanding, and patience have made the present volume possible. Furthermore, my thanks are extended to my co-editors for sharing the task of preparing and - where necessary - writing this volume with me. Over several years Dr. J. Rohwer has offered his advice in nearly all matters concerning the contents and presentation of the volume. Dr. V. Bittrich was most helpful in revising the manuscripts of the Caryophyllales families and in preparing an overview of this order. Drs. V. Bittrich, J. Rohwer, and GTodzia are also thanked for preparing the family treatments of the Caryophyllaceae, Moraceae, and Ulmaceae, respectively, when such treatments were not received from specialists of these families. Dr. H.-H. Poppendieck is thanked for his valuable advice during the preparation of the volume. Various contributions were prepared with support from the Volkswagenstiftung received through the Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V. Hamburg, for which I am most grateful.

I am deeply indebted to all those who reviewed contributions, including R. Barneby, New York, J.-E. Bohlin, Gothenburg, R. Carolin, formerly Sydney, H. Dietrich, Jena, R Endress, Zurich, M.Erben, Munich, M.Fallen-Endress, Zurich, L.L.Forman, Kew, H.Freitag, Kassel, M. G. Gilbert, Kew, I. C. Hedge, Edinburgh, M.A.Hershkovitz, Davis, U.Hofmann, Göttingen, H.Huber, Kaiserslautern, D.Hunt, Kew, H.-D.Ihlenfeldt, Hamburg, E.Jäger, Halle, E J. Maas, Utrecht, C. Puff, Vienna, R. K. Rabeler, Ann Arbor, Michigan, W. Rauh, Heidelberg, H.-G.Richter, Hamburg, H.Schaarschmidt, Leipzig, A.Schmidt, Hamburg, D.E.Stone, Durham, North Carolina, H. Straka, Kiel, T. Stuessy, Ohio, L. Y. Th. Westra, Utrecht, W. J. J. O De Wilde, Leyden, P.Uotila, Helsinki, H. van der Werff, St. Louis, Missouri, P.G.Wilson, Perth,

B.Verdcourt, Kew, and others. Most valuable additional help and information were received from H.-D.Behnke, Heidelberg, E.M.Friis, Stockholm, J. Grau, Munich, T.Mabry, Austin, Texas, T. M. Pedersen, Corrientes, and P H. Raven, St. Louis, Missouri.

My further thanks go to all individuals and publishing houses who contributed to the illustration of the present volume either by providing unpublished material or by granting permission to reproduce published illustrations. Special thanks are due to Acad. A.Takhtajan who generously permitted the use of numerous illustrations of his Plant Life, and to Dr.

C.E.Wood who kindly authorized the reproduction of many figures prepared for the Generic Flora of the Southeastern United States, published in the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum.

Finally, I wish to include in my thanks Springer-Verlag whose staff very kindly and patiently helped to produce this volume in its present form.

Hamburg, Summer 1993



Introduction K.Kubitzki 1

Introduction to Centrospermae V.Bittrich 13

A Chemosystematic Overview of Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae and Hamamelidae

O.R. Gottlieb, M. A. C. Kaplan, and D.H.T.Zocher . 20

General References 32

Achatocarpaceae V.Bittrich 35

Aizoaceae H. E. K. Hartmann 37

Amaranthaceae GC.Townsend 70

Amborellaceae W. R. Philipson 92

Annonaceae P. J. A.Kessler 93

Aristolochiaceae H.Huber 129

Austrobaileyaceae P.K.Endress 138

Barbeyaceae I.Friis 141

Basellaceae C.R.Sperling and V.Bittrich 143

Berberidaceae H.Loconte 147

Betulaceae K.Kubitzki 152

Cabombaceae P.S.Williamson and E.L.Schneider 157

Cactaceae W. Barthlott and D. R. Hunt 161

Calycanthaceae K.Kubitzki 197

Canellaceae K.Kubitzki 200

Cannabaceae K.Kubitzki 204

Caryophyllaceae V.Bittrich 206

Casuarinaceae L.A.S.Johnson and K.L.Wilson 237

Cecropiaceae K.Kubitzki 243

Ceratophyllaceae D.H.Les 246

Cercidiphyllaceae P.K.Endress 250

Chenopodiaceae U.Kuhn 253

Chloranthaceae C.A.Todzia 281

Circaeasteraceae Wu Cheng-Yih and K. Kubitzki 288

Degeneriaceae K.Kubitzki 290

Didiereaceae K.Kubitzki 292

Eupomatiaceae P.K.Endress 296

Eupteleaceae P.K.Endress 299

Fagaceae K.Kubitzki 301

Fumariaceae M.Liden 310

Gomortegaceae K.Kubitzki 318

Halophytaceae V.Bittrich 320

Hamamelidaceae P.K.Endress 322

Hectorellaceae W.R.Philipson 331

Hernandiaceae K.Kubitzki 334

Himantandraceae P.K.Endress 338

Hydnoraceae W.Meijer 341

Illiciaceae H.Keng 344

Juglandaceae D.E.Stone 348

Lactoridaceae K.Kubitzki 359

Lardizabalaceae Wu Cheno-Yih and K.Kubitzki 361

Lauraceae J.G.Rohwer 366

Magnoliaceae H. P. Nooteboom 391

Menispermaceae P. J. A. Kessler 402

Molluginaceae M.E.Endress and V.Bittrich 419

Monimiaceae W.R.Philipson 426

Moraceae J.G.Rohwer 438

Myricaceae K.Kubitzki 453

Myristicaceae U.Kuhn and K.Kubitzki 457

Myrothamnaceae K.Kubitzki 468

Nelumbonaceae P.S.Williamson and E.L.Schneider 470

Nyctaginaceae V.Bittrich and U.Kuhn 473

Nymphaeaceae E.L.Schneider and P.S.Williamson 486

Papaveraceae J.W.Kadereit . ,,494

Phytolaccaceae J.G.Rohwer 506

Piperaceae M.C.Tebbs 516

Platanaceae K.Kubitzki 521

Plumbaginaceae K.Kubitzki 523

Polygonaceae J.Brandbyge 531

Portulacaceae R.CCarolin 544

Pteridophyllaceae M.Lid£n 556

Rafflesiaceae W.Meijer 557

Ranunculaceae M.Tamura, with a contribution by S.Vogel 563

Rhoipteleaceae Wu Cheng-Yih and K. Kubitzki 584

Saururaceae Wu Cheng-Yih and K. Kubitzki 586

Schisandraceae H.Keng 589

Stegnospermaceae J.G.Rohwer 592

Ticodendraceae K.Kubitzki 594

Trimeniaceae W.R.Philipson 596

Trochodendraceae P.K.Endress 599

Ulmaceae C.A.Todzia 603

Urticaceae I.Friis 612

Winteraceae W.Vink 630

Index of Scientific Names 639

List of Contributors

Bartlott, W. Botanisches Institut, Meckenheimer Allee 170,53115 Bonn,


Bittrich, V. Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten,

Ohnhorststr. 18,22609 Hamburg, Germany

Brandbyge, J. Skejbygaardsvej 80,8240 Risskov, Denmark

Carolin, R. formerly John Ray Herbarium, University of Sydney, now Pulmans Cottage, Pulman Street, Berry NSW 2535, Australia

Endress, M. E. Botanischer Garten und Institut für systematische Botanik der

Universität Zürich, Zollikerstr. 107,8008 Zürich, Switzerland

Endress, P. K. Botanischer Garten und Institut für systematische Botanik der

Universität Zürich, Zollikerstr. 107,8008 Zürich, Switzerland

Friis, I. Botanical Museum, Gothersgade 130,1123 Kopenhagen K,


Gottlieb, O. R. Funda?äo Oswaldo Cruz, Departamento de Farmacología e Farmacodinámica, C. P. 926 20.000 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Hartmann, H.E.K. Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten,

Ohnhorststr. 18,22609 Hamburg, Germany

Huber, H. Universität, Fachbereich Biologie, Postfach 3049,

67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany

Hunt, D. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB,

United Kingdom

Johnson, L. A. S. National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic

Gardens, Mrs. Macquarie's Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

Kadereit, J. W. Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten der Universität, Saarstr. 21,55122 Mainz, Germany

Kaplan, M. A. Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Núcleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Bloco H, Ilha da Cidade Universitária, 20.000 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil

Keng, H. Dept. of Botany, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge,

Singapore 0511

Kessler, P.J. A. Rijksherbarium, Postbus 9514,2300 RA Leiden,

The Netherlands

Kühn, U. formerly Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer

Garten, Ohnhorststr. 18,22609 Hamburg, Germany

Kubitzki, K. Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten,

Ohnhorststr. 18,22609 Hamburg, Germany

Les, D. H. The University of Connecticut, Ecology and Evolutionary

Biology, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3042, USA

Liden, M. Dept. of Systematic Botany, Carl Skottsberg Gata 22,

413 19 Göteborg, Sweden

Loconte, H. Biology Department, Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville,

New York 10708, USA

Meijer, W. University of Kentucky, School of Biological Sciences,

Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA

Nooteboom, H. P. Rijksherbarium, Postbus 9514,2300 RA Leiden,

The Netherlands

Philipson, W. R. formerly University of Christchurch, now 17 Jellicoe Street, Greytown, New Zealand

Rohwer, J. G. Institut für Systematische Botanik und Pflanzengeographie,

Im Neuenheimer Feld 345,69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Schneider, E. L. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Road,

Santa Barbara, CA 93105, USA

Sperling, C. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service,

Germplasm Services Laboratory, Room 329, Building 001 Bare West, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA

Stone, D.E. Dept. of Botany, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706, USA

Tamura, M. Kinki University, Faculty of Biotechnology oriented Science and Technology, Utida, Nagagum, Wakayama 649-64, Japan

Tebbs, M.C. c/o Dr. T. Cope, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,

Richmond, Surrey TW 9 3AB, United Kingdom

Todzia, C. A. University of Texas, Dept. of Botany, Austin, Texas 78713-7640,

Townsend, C. C. Royal Botanik Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3 AB,

United Kingdom

Vink, W. Rijksherbarium, Postbus 9514,2300 RA Leiden,

The Netherlands

Vogel, St. Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten der Universität, Saarstr. 21,55122 Mainz, Germany

Williamson, P. S. Southwest Texas State University, Dept. of Biology, San Marcos,

Texas 78666-4616, USA

Wilson, Karen L. National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic

Gardens, Mrs. Macquaire's Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

Wu, Cheng-Yih Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica,

Kunming 650204, Yunnan, China

Zocher, D. H.T. Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Nücleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Bloco H, Ilha da Cidade Universitäria, 20.000 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil

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