General References


Baillon, H.E. 1866-1895. Histoire des plantes, 13 vols. Paris: L. Hachette et Cie.

Bentham, G., Hooker, J.D. 1862-1883. Genera Plantarum, 3 vols. London: various publishers.

Cronquist, A. 1968. The evolution and classification of flowering plants. London: Nelson.

Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.

Cronquist, A. 1988. The evolution and classification of flowering plants, 2nd edn. New York: The New York Botanical Garden.

Dahlgren, G. 1989a. An updated angiosperm classification. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100:197-203.

Dahlgren, G. 1989 b. The last Dahlgrenogram. System of classification of the dicotyledons. In: Kit Tan (ed.) Plant taxonomy. The Davis & Hedge Festschrift. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 249-260.

Dahlgren, R. 1975. A system of classification of the angio-sperms to be used to demonstrate the distribution of characters. Bot. Not. 128:148-180.

Dahlgren, R.M.T. 1980. A revised system of classification of the angiosperms. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 80:91-124.

Dahlgren, R. 1983. General aspects of angiosperm evolution and macrosystematics. Nord. J. Bot. 3:119-149.

Engler, A., Prantl, K. (eds.) 1887-1915. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 4 parts, index, 4 suppl. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. (2nd edn. with various editors 1925 ) (for an index to families in first and second edition see Morley, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 71:210-228.1984).

Goldberg, A. 1986. Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of dicotyledons. Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 58. 314 pp.

Huber, H. 1982. Die zweikeimblättrigen Gehölze im System der Angiospermen. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 18:59-78.

Huber, H. 1990. Angiospermen. Leitfaden durch die Ordnungen und Familien der Bedecktsamer. Stuttgart: G.Fischer.

Hutchinson, J. 1973. The families of flowering plants, 3rd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kubitzki, K. 1972. Probleme der Großsystematik der Angiospermen. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 85: 259-277.

Kubitzki,K. (ed.) 1977. Flowering plants-evolution andclassi-fication of higher categories. PI. Syst. Evol., Suppl. 1. Berlin Heidelberg New York Wien: Springer.

Smith, A.C. 1972. An appraisal of the ordere and families of primitive extant angiosperms. J. Indian Bot. Soc. Golden Jubilee Vol. 50 A: 215-226 ("1971").

Soo, R. 1967. Die modernen Systeme der Angiospermen. Acta Bot. Acad. Sei. Hung. 13:201-233.

Soö, C. R. de 1975. A review of the new classification systems of flowering plants (Angiospermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). Taxon 24:585-592.

Takhtajan, A. 1980a. Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Bot. Rev. 46:225-359.

Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) 1980b. Flowering plants, vol. 5 A of: Fedorov, Al. A. (ed.) Plant life. Moscow: Prosweshenie (in Russian).

Takhtajan, A. 1987. Systema Magnoliophytorum. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian).

Thome, R. F. 1968. Synopsis of a putatively phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants. Aliso 6: 57-66.

Thome, R. F. 1974. A phylogenetic classification of the Annoni-florae. Aliso 8:147-209.

Thorne, R.F. 1976. A phylogenetic classification of the Angio-spermae. Evol. Biol. 9: 35-106.

Thorne, R.F. 1983. Proposed new realignements in the angiosperms. Nord. J. Bot. 3:85-117.

Thorne, R.F. 1992. Classification and geography of the flowering plants. Bot. Rev. 58: 225-348

Phylogeny and Evolution

Beck, C.B. (ed.) 1976. Origin and early evolution of angiosperms. New York: Columbia University Press.

Crane, P.R. 1985. Phylogenetic analysis of seed plants and the origin of angiosperms. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 72:716-793.

Crane, P.R., Blackmore, S. (eds.) 1989. Evolution, systematics, and fossil history of the Hamamelidae, 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Donoghue, M.J., Doyle, J. A. 1989. Phylogenetic relationships of angiosperms and the relationships of Hamamelidae. In: Crane, P. R., Blackmore, S. (eds.) Evolution, systematics, and fossil history of the Hamamelidae, vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 17-45.

Friis, E.M., Chaloner, W.G., Crane, P.R. 1987. The origins of angjosperms and their biological consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nemejc, F. 1956. On the problem of the origin and phylogenetic development of the angiosperms. Acta Mus. Nat. Prag. 12B: 65-144.

Stebbins, G.L. 1974. Flowering plants. Evolution above the species level. London: Edward Arnold.

Takhtajan, A. 1969. Flowering plants: origin and dispersal. Edinburgh: Boyd.

Vegetative Structures

Behnke, H.-D. 1988. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein and evolution of flowering plants: III. Magnoliidae. Taxon 37: 699-732.

Behnke, H.-D. 1989. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein, and the evolution of flowering plants. IV. Hamamelidae. In: Crane, P R., Blackmore, S. (eds.) Evolution, systematics, and fossil history of the Hamamelidae, vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 105-128.

Czaja, A. Th. 1978. Structure of starch grains and the classification of vascular plant families. Taxon 27:463-470.

Metcalfe, R.C., Chalk, L. 1950. Anatomy of dicotyledons, 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press (2nd. edn. 1979 ->).

Reproductive Structures

Comer, E.J.H. 1976. The seeds of dicotyledons, 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Takhtajan, A. 1988. Anatomía seminum comperatfva. Vol.2.

Magno liidae-Ranunculidae. Leningrad: Nauka ( in Russian) Takhtajan, A. 1991. Anatomía seminum comparativa. Vol.3.

Caryophyllidae-Dilleniidae. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian) Weberling, F. 1988. Inflorescence structure in primitive angio-

sperms. Taxon 37:657-690. Weberling, F. 1989. Morphology of flowers and inflorescences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pollen Morphology and Embryology

Erdtman, G. 1952. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.

Dahlgren, G. 1991 Steps toward a natural system of the dicotyledons: embryological characters. Aliso 13:107-165.

Davis, G. L. 1966. Systematic embryology of angiosperms. New York: Wiley.

Ferguson, I.K., Muller, J. (eds.) 1976. The evolutionary significance of the exine. London: Academic Press.

Johri, B. (ed.) 1984. Embryology of angiosperms. Berlin Heidelberg New York. Springer.

Nagendran, C.R., Dinesh, M.S. 1989. The embryology of angiosperms: aclassified bibliography (1965-1985) Michigan: Indira Publ. House.

van Campo, M. 1976. Patterns of pollen morphological variation within taxa. In: Ferguson, I.K., Müller, J. (eds.) The evolutionary significance of the exine. London: Academic Press, pp. 125-135.

Walker, J.W. 1976a. Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. In: Ferguson, I.K., Müller, J. (eds.) The evolutionary significance of the exine. London: Academic Press, pp. 251-292.

Walker, J.W. 1976b. Comparative pollen morphology and phy-logeny of the ranalean complex. In: Beck, C.B. (ed.) Origin and early evolution of angiosperms. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.241-297.

Walker, J. W., Walker, A. G. 1984. Ultrastructure of Lower Cretaceous angiosperm pollen and the origin and early evolution of flowering plants. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.71: 464-521.

Yakovlev, M.S. (ed.) 1981. Comparative embryology of flowering plants, Winteraceae-Juglandaceae. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian).

Yakovlev, M.S. (ed.) 1983. Comparative embryology of flower-ingplants,Phytolaccaceae-Thymelaeaceae.Leningrad:Nauka (in Russian).

Yakovlev, M.S. (ed.) 1985. Comparative embryology of flowering plants, Brunelliaceae-Tremandraceae. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian).

Zavada, M. S. 1984. Angiosperm origins and evolution based on dispersed fossil pollen ultrastructure. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 71: 444-463.

Zavada, M.S., Dilcher, D.L. 1986. Comparative pollen morphology and its relationship to phylogeny of pollen in the Hamamelidae. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 73:348-381.


Fedorov, Al.A. (ed.) 1969. Chromosome numbers of flowering plants. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian). Raven, P.H. 1975. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: cytology. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 62: 724-764.

Chemo systematics

Bate-Smith, E. C. 1962. The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance. I. Dicotyledons. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 58:95-173. Gibbs, R.D. 1974. Chemotaxonomy of flowering plants, 4 vols.

Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. Hegnauer, R. 1962-1991. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Basel: Birkhäuser. (Vol.1: 1962; Vol.2: 1963; Vol.3: 1964; Vol.4:1966; Vol.5:1969; Vol.6:1973; Vol.7:1986; Vol.8:1989; Vol.9:1990; Vol.10:1991). Kubitzki, K., Gottlieb, O.R. 1984a. Micromolecular patterns and the evolution and major classification of angiosperms. Tfcxon 33:375-391. Kubitzki, K., Gottlieb, O.R. 1984b. Phytochemical aspects of angiosperms origin and evolution. Acta bot. Neerl. 33: 457468.

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