Energy Consumption Ebooks Catalog
Before the advent of cheap and readily accessible heating and air conditioning, people used common-sense landscaping to increase the comfort of their homes and to reduce heating and cooling costs. A well-planned landscape can reduce a home's summer air-conditioning costs by 15 percent to 50 percent. Windbreaks can save up to 25 percent on heating costs. Here are a few energy-conservation tips
Proper selection and placement of plants can reduce home energy consumption. Deciduous trees planted 15-25 feet away from the house on the east, south and west sides shade the roof and walls in summer, reducing surface temperatures. After the trees have dropped their leaves in fall, winter sunlight can reach the house to provide passive solar heating. Windbreaks, mainly evergreen plantings, located four to six times their ultimate height away from the house on the north and west sides can reduce winds and winter fuel consumption. Foundation plantings also reduce winter heat loss. Vines can shade and cool house walls during summer. Maximum energy savings will not occur until your plants reach maturity. Publication G81N1178 Designing an Energy - Efficient Home Landscaping contains more details.
Modern humans require enormous amounts of cncrgv to maintain their lifestyles. Wc know diat many energy-related factors, such as available land and fossil fuels, arc limited. How can you personally reduce your overall energy consumption without affecting your annual energy intake
Garden space, storage space for preserved vegetables, storage space for preserving equipment, family food preferences, your own preferences, your local climate, the energy costs, time involved in preserving, and the help available (if any), are all points you need to consider when you're deciding how much of a certain vegetable you want to grow. Before you plant large amounts of a vegetable, plan what you're going to do with the vegetables you can't eat at once. Check each vegetable's storage potential detailed information on storing and preserving Is given in Part 3 and take into account whether or not you want to go to the trouble of storing or preserving what you don't eat immediately. Some people find canning, freezing, or drying their home crop a most pleasurable activity. Others don't have time or just don't like doing It. So counting your chickens before they're hatched is a vital part of your planning, and something to keep in mind even way back In the winter when you're...
First, draw in planting beds and landscape structures that give shape to your outdoor use areas. As you draw, consider both function - energy conservation, screening poor views, enhancing good ones, etc. - and aesthetics - based on general design principles. You may want to review the relevant sections of this publication as you zero in on the most successful design.
Now the thing that we have ignored, not only turned our backs on but often fled from, is conversion of high level investment capital to these low energy systems. There are a whole set of strategies to do so that we are assembling as an Earth banks service. Some of these strategies will benefit our social happiness as well.
Most organically grown greenhouse vegetables are grown directly in the soil. In contrast to field grown vegetables, crop rotation is not straightforward in greenhouses. Every crop requires specific greenhouse equipment and rotation would be very costly. Thus, the crops are grown for years in the same soil with the risk of concentrating pathogens in the soil. As chemicals cannot be used in organic production and sterilisation by steaming is questionable due to the effect on the microflora and the high energy consumption, alternative ways of avoiding pathogens in the soil must be considered. Greenhouse vegetables are very nutrient demanding, needing up to 20 times the amount of N of field grown vegetables. Thus, large amounts of organic fertilisers are added to the soil. In addition, the vegetables can be irrigated in excess, presenting the risk of loosing nutrients by leaching. One way of avoiding these potential problems could be by growing the plants in compost in confined beds....
The cellulose fibrils are embedded, and (iii) lignin, a phenol polymer, which forms a bond between cellulose and hemicellulose. To date, cellulose is mainly isolated from trees. In order to obtain pure cellulose fibres (e.g. for the paper industry) lignins have to be eliminated. The chemical process is very expensive and pollutive under high energy consumption (Franke et al. 2000), hence reducing the lignin contents in trees might ease the isolation of cellulose.
The objective of this excrcisc is for you to get a sense for your piece of the sun. In other words, we will calculate the amount of energy needed to support you as an organism, in particular, a normal consumer of the early tw enty-first century. By keeping track of your f
Not all crops are equal in their production of edible food. For a plant such as an orange tree, we eat only a small portion of the plant. For other crops, such as sugar produced from sugar beets, the yield per acre is much greater. In column 4, approximate yields arc given for each food subcategory. The units arc given in kcal m yr To determine die cropland needed to produce cach type of food column 5), divide the annual energy consumption per subcategory (column 3) by the yield tor cach subcategory (column 4). The values for seafood correspond to the square meters of ocean on the continental shelf needed to support die fish and shellfish in your diet. A rough estimate for the additional energy subsidy to your support system depends on several lac-tors, including (1) the proportion of highly processed foods in your diet (e.g., prepared frozen pizza or other convenience foods), (2) store bought versus home-grown, (3) the costs of shopping and preparing (e.g., number of trips and...
It should be understood that the breath one exhales can also be the carrier of dangerous pathogens, as can one's saliva and sputum. The issue is confused by the notion that if something is potentially dangerous, then it is always dangerous, which is not true. Furthermore, it is generally not understood that the carefully managed thermophilic composting of humanure converts it into a sanitized agricultural resource. No other system of fecal material and urine recycling or disposal can achieve this without the use of dangerous chemical poisons or a high level of technology and energy consumption.
According to EPA officials, the emergence of constructed wetlands technology shows great potential as a cost-effective alternative to wastewater treatment. The wetlands method is said to be relatively affordable, energy-efficient, practical and effective. The treatment efficiency of properly constructed wetlands is said to compare well with conventional treatment systems.31 Unfortunately, wetlands systems don't recover the agricultural resources available in humanure.
As alluded to earlier, many U.S. organic farms perform well on many of the measurable indicators associated with sustainability, such as energy consumption and environmental protection. However, sustainability is an ideal, and the best that can be said is that current organic farms are closer to the ideal than most alternatives certainly closer than comparable conventional farming operations.
This publication features organic vegetable production in a solar greenhouse. Solviva refers to Edey's award-winning solar-powered and animal-heated greenhouse on Martha's Vineyard unfortunately no longer in operation . The book discusses greenhouse design, function, construction, and management. Ms. Edey includes many energy-efficient designs such as water walls and growtubes. She also tells how much everything costs, which is invaluable for market gardeners. Although her main crop was lettuce, her techniques could be applied in any greenhouse. Solviva is available for 35 (plus shipping handling). Order by mail or on-line from GFM Books P.O. Box 3747 Lawrence, KS 66046 800-307-8949 www.growingformarket. com
An Austrian farmer claims that the microorganisms he introduces into his fields have prevented his crops from being contaminated by the radiation from Chernobyl, the ill-fated Russian nuclear power plant, which contaminated his neighbor's fields. Sigfried Lubke sprays his green manure crops with compost-type microorganisms just before plowing them under. This practice has produced a soil rich in humus and teeming with microscopic life. After the Chernobyl disaster, crops from fields in Lubke's farming area were banned from sale due to high amounts of radioactive cesium contamination. However, when officials tested Lubke's crops, no trace of cesium could be found. The officials made repeated tests because
It would appear at first sight that respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis (see p111). This supposition is correct in the sense that photosynthesis creates glucose as an energy-saving strategy, and respiration breaks down glucose as an energy releasing mechanism. It is also correct in the sense that the simple equations representing the two processes are mirror images of each other.
The trouble with America is that these things that people have been doing have been just with their own homes, keeping it to themselves. In Davis, you have the benefits of design orientation. A whole set of low-energy systems are demonstrated there. More of your urban areas should be permeable to rain so your street trees would remain healthy.
Horizontal air movement is beneficial for several reasons. An approximate air speed of 1 m s,' which causes leaves to move slightly, is recommended. Horizontal air movement helps minimize air temperature gradients in the greenhouse, removes moisture from the lower part of the greenhouse (under the foliage), distributes moisture in the rest of the greenhouse, helps the carbon dioxide from the top of the greenhouse to travel into the leaf canopy where it is taken up and fixed in photosynthesis, and may even assist pollination. As a result of modest air movement in the greenhouse the uniformity of the greenhouse environment is improved, which is generally beneficial to crop productivity and energy conservation.
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