Egg Production Ebooks Catalog
I'll deal with trying to break her broodiness first as this is less complicated. There are many reasons for choosing to do this, ranging from not wishing to increase the numbers in your flock, right through to inconvenient timing (eg chicks will hatch when you're away) or just a need to get her back into egg production rapidly, bearing in mind that broodiness can be catching, which can deplete your egg numbers rapidly.
In excess of 16 has not been observed. A closely related parasitoid, M. punctulatae Loan and Wylie, also readily parasitizes this flea beetle under laboratory conditions, but levels of parasitism in the ield are unknown (Wylie, 1984). Nematodes, probably Howardula sp. (Nematoda Allantonematidae) have been observed to be numerous in western cabbage flea beetle, but the only reported effect seems to reduce egg production by the beetles (Chittenden and Marsh, 1920). Birds also will consume flea beetles.
However, in general color the false chinch bug is grayish-brown to blackish brown, bearing transparent wings marked with rows of small spots. In contrast, chinch bug is generally black, and marked with a large dark spot on each of the front wings. In food habits they also differs markedly. Chinch bug prefers grain and grass crops, but false chinch bug prefers broadleafed crops. The adult false chinch bugs commonly aggregate, both for feeding (Milliken, 1916) and mating (Byers, 1973). They begin egg production about 16 days after reaching maturity, and may survive for up to seven weeks. Mass dispersal is often observed, probably in search of food.
In contrast, there is principally one generation per year in northern Saskatchewan. Most of the eggs laid by the spring generation enter diapause only a few, probably less than 5 , develop into nymphs. A few second generation adults are produced, but there is not adequate time before the onset of cold weather for egg production to occur (Craig, 1963).
The life cycle varies considerably, depending on the presence of cold winters. van Emden et al. (1969) provided a useful review of the life cycle. Development can be rapid, often 10-12 days for a complete generation, and with over 20 annual generations reported in mild climates. Where suitable host plants cannot persist, the aphid overwinters in the egg stage on Prunus spp. In the spring, soon after the plant breaks dormancy and begins to grow, the eggs hatch and the nymphs feed on flowers, young foliage, and stems. After several generation on Prunus spp., dispersants from overwintering hosts deposit nymphs on summer hosts. In cold climates, adults return to Prunus spp. in the autumn, where mating occurs and eggs are deposited. All generations except the autumn generation culminating in egg production are parthenogenetic.
Granulate cutworm is active continuously in the south adults, eggs and larvae have been collected during all months in Louisiana. Nevertheless, there seems to be seasonality to reproduction, as unmated females are found mostly from May-November. Total abundance similarly is greatest in June-November. In Tennessee, three complete generations are reported, with overwintering insects emerging in March. In addition to egg production about March, peaks in egg production occur in May, July and September. The pupae from the September generation overwinter. The complete life cycle requires 50-70 days.
Egg deposition occurs just one day after mating, and the oviparous (egg-laying) aphids may live for a month or more. The egg production is not well-studied, but Herrick and Hungate (1911) estimated 5-7 eggs per female. The eggs are initially pale-yellow or yellow-green, but they become shiny black within a few days of deposition. They are generally found on the underside of leaves, and measure 0.65 mm long and 0.15 mm wide. Unlike many aphids, cabbage aphids do not alternate between summer and winter hosts the eggs are found on the plants fed upon by the summer populations. Eggs typically hatch in April.
The egg is oval and measures about 0.60.7mm long and 0.3-0.45mm wide. The egg is white when first deposited, but turns pink and then gray as the embryo develops. Duration of the egg stage is about 15.4 days, but varies from 5 to 33 days depending on temperature. The eggs are deposited singly or in small groups of up to 12. They are deposited on the flower, stems, or pod petiole. Estimates of egg production vary widely. Laboratory-reared moths often produce only 50-90 eggs, whereas field-collected moths may produce about 140-260 eggs. The latter values are probably much better estimates of fecundity.
The egg of fall armyworm is dome shaped the base is flattened and the egg curves upward to a broadly rounded point at the apex. It is well-marked with 47-50 ridges that radiate outward from the apex. The egg measures about 0.4 mm in diameter and 0.3 mm in height. They are deposited on hosts and non-hosts in the latter case the larvae disperse, often with the help of a strand of silk, which allows them to be blown a considerable distance by wind. The female typically produces several egg masses during her oviposition period, with deposition occurring at night, and on larger plants if provided a choice between large and small. The number of eggs per mass varies considerably but it is often 100-200, and total egg production per female averages about 1500, with a maximum of over 2000. They are sometimes deposited in layers, but most are spread over a single layer, and are attached to foliage. The female also deposits a layer of grayish scales between the eggs and over the egg mass,...
The eggs are spherical to oval, and measure 1.25-1.50 mm in diameter. They are smooth and vary in color from light green or yellow when they are early in development, to white at maturity. They are deposited principally on the lower surface of foliage, but also on the upper surface. Mean fecundity was reported by Madden and Chamberlain (1945) to be about 250-350 eggs with seasonal fluctuations and maximum egg production at mid-season. However, Yamamoto (1968) showed that with adequate adult nutrition, fecundity of nearly 1400 eggs per female could be attained. Duration of the egg stage is 2-8 days, but averages five days.
The eggs reportedly are deposited on vegetation and on the soil surface. However, Balduf (1931) described deposition of eggs into flower heads of sunflowers. The eggs are oval, whitish to light brown, and the surface is marked by about 36 (F. jaculifera) or 56 (F. subgothica) narrow ridges. They measure about 0.60-0.65 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, and 0.36-0.38 mm in height. Duration of the egg stage is 5-21 days, depending on weather conditions, but normally 6-11 days. Based on dissections, females appear to be capable of producing about 800 eggs (range 500-1220 eggs). However, when Stanley (1936) captured moths feeding at flowers and confined them, he observed egg production of only about 100 eggs per female.
The eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters, often along the leaf midrib. The oval eggs are white when first deposited, but soon turn brown, and hatch in about three days. They measure about 0.5 mm in diameter, and bear a longitudinal ridge. The female produces 3-4 egg clusters, producing eggs at about 16 per day over a period of about five days. Total egg production averages about 65 per female, but may reach 160 per female.
The adults measure only about 1.4-2.2 mm long. They are reddish-yellow, with a brown abdomen and a brown irregular transverse patch or band crossing, or nearly crossing, the yellow elytra. The legs are also reddish-yellow except for the darker femora of the hind legs. The hind femora are enlarged. As is the case with all Epitrix beetles, the entire body bears a coat of short hairs. Adults live for several weeks, resulting in overlapping generations and almost continuous egg production. The pre-oviposition period is 2-3 weeks.
Traps are not very effective during the spring flight, and underestimate early season densities (Willson et al., 1981 Levine et al., 1982). Thus, the phenology of black cutworm remains uncertain, or perhaps is inherently variable owing to the vagaries associated with long-range dispersal. Overwintering has been reported to occur in the pupal stage in most areas where overwintering occurs, but larvae persist throughout the winter in Florida. Pupae have been known to overwinter as far north as Tennessee, but apparently are incapable of surviving farther north (Story and Keaster, 1982a). Thus, moths collected in the midwestern states in March and April are principally dispersing individuals that are past their peak egg production period (Clement et al., 1985). Nonetheless, they inoculate the area and allow production of additional generations, including moths which disperse north into Canada. Duration of the life cycle is normally 35-60 days.
The egg of palestriped flea beetle is oval, and yellow. Eggs measure about 0.4 mm in width and 0.8 mm long. Eggs are deposited in the soil, adjacent to larval food plants, at a depth of 3.0-7.5 mm. The female may deposit the eggs singly, or in groups of up to eight, but 1-3 eggs per cluster seems to be normal for a single location. Beetles select several oviposi-tion sites for each oviposition event. Thus, 12-18 eggs are normally deposited per event, with 8 to 14 events observed during the life of each beetle. Total egg production per beetle averages 68-153, with fecundity of the spring generation tending to be lower. Incubation period of the eggs is 11-23 days.
The life cycle and description of Mormon cricket and coulee cricket are nearly identical. Normally there is one generation per year, though there are reports of eggs at high altitudes remaining in diapause for an entire year, resulting in a two-year life cycle. They overwinter, with egg hatch occurring in March-May, often while snow remains on the ground. The nymphs are present until June when adults begin to emerge and start egg production. Adults usually perish by late August, often earlier. About 100 days is required for the nymphal and adult stages to be completed. Mormon cricket and coulee cricket are differentiated by the texture of the dorsal surface of the pronotum it is punctate or rough in coulee cricket but smooth in Mormon cricket.
The number of generations appears to vary. In Virginia (Underhill, 1934) and Ontario and Quebec (Javahery, 1990) it is reported to be one, but in Arkansas (Miner, 1966) and Kansas (Wilde, 1969) apparently there are two generations annually. In Arkansas, the first generation often occurs on dogwood, with the second generation attacking principally soybean. It would be easy to overlook the first generation, which may explain some of the disagreement about generation number. Development time is long, especially the adult pre-oviposi-tion period, so generation number is likely limited to one in the north, but the climate of southern states should allow a second generation. Photoperiod, rather than temperature, may determine generation number. Wilde (1969) reported that increasing day length stimulated egg production, whereas decreasing day length inhibited egg production. The life cycle requires about 100 days when stink bugs are cultured at 22 C. The adult is...
The eggs are transparent to pale yellow, and measure about 1 mm long. They are inserted into the veins and petioles of leaves, usually at about 2-6 per day. Total egg production is about 200-300 per female. They hatch, on average, in 10 days, but hatching occurs over a range of 7-20 days.
Diversity isn't involved so much with the number of elements in a system as it is with the number of functional connections between these elements. Diversity is not the number of things, but the number of ways in which things work. This really is the direction in which permaculture thinking is headed. I was sitting up one evening, studying how many connections are made by putting just two elements together, a greenhouse and a chicken coop. I think I came up with 129 sorts of beneficial connections. So what we are really talking about is not some grandiose complication of 3,000 species on a site.
There is only a single generation per year, with the adults aestivating during the summer months. Typical oversummering locations for the inactive adults include beneath loose bark of trees, and under grass, weeds, and other organic debris, often at the edges of crop ields. In September, activity is resumed, and egg production begins. This beetle is parthenogenetic only females are known, and all are capable of producing fertile eggs. Under ideal conditions, a life cycle can be completed in about 45-110 days. Egg. Eggs are deposited over an extended period of time, usually from September until March, if weather allows adults to be active. This results in protracted periods of activity for all other life stages, also. The egg is slightly elliptical, and about 0.64 mm long and 0.54 mm wide. Initially, it is white, but turns yellow and then gray, and eventually black, as it reaches maturity. The eggs are deposited near the crown of the plant, but sometimes on...
Migratory grasshopper is greatly influenced by weather. Through most of its range longevity and reproduction are limited by shortage of warm weather. Thus, abnormally warm and dry periods of about three years stimulate increase in their numbers. Warm weather during spring and autumn is particularly important. Cool and cloudy weather in the spring inhibits feeding by young nymphs, and results in high mortality. Also, adults have the potential to be long-lived and highly fecund, but their reproductive effort is normally terminated prematurely by the onset of cold weather. When summers are hot or prolonged, development proceeds faster or longer, resulting in greater egg production. In southern areas grasshoppers are less limited by shortage of warm weather, but are more affected by shortages of food. Therefore, occurrence of precipitation early in the season to provide luxurious foliage, especially broadleaf weed vegetation, is an important prerequisite for population increase...
An important aspect of RNAi in C. elegans is the ability to elicit phenotypic effects through the oral delivery of dsRNA molecules, either from solution or expressed within the bacteria upon which the nematode feeds, providing the new approach of engineering plant resistance to insect and nematode. Important advances have been made in the application of RNAi for nematode resistance over the past two years. Several reports demonstrated that plants expressing hairpin constructs targeting plant-parasitic nematode genes (Huang et al. 2006 Steeves et al. 2006 Yadav et al. 2006) display significant resistance to nematodes. Tobacco plant RNAi-induced silencing of Meloidogyne genes encoding a splicing factor and a component of a chromatin remodelling complex (Yadav et al. 2006) result in a high level of resistance to M. incognita. Huang et al. (2006) demonstrated the potential for engineering nematode resistance for plants by use of nematode parasitic genes. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants...
Chickens are multipurpose garden elements, providing cultivation, weeding, pest control, fertilizer, eggs, and cuteness all in one feathery, clucking package. Three or four hens will keep a family well supplied with eggs. (Roosters will get you busted in most places, though.) A classic henhouse around 4 by 8 feet, made very sturdily to keep predators out is a wonderful addition to the sustainable garden. But another approach is even more sustainable because it performs more tasks than a henhouse. Stand back here comes the chicken tractor.
The eggs are deposited from April or May until early August in Wisconsin. They are most often deposited on the petioles of young leaves, often where the petiole meets the root. Some eggs are also deposited on or in the soil. Eggs are elliptical in shape and orange. The average length is 0.57 mm (range 0.430.84 mm), and the width is 0.33 mm (range 0.260.47 mm). The eggs are usually deposited in small clusters, and individual eggs are sometimes aligned side by side. They are not securely attached to the plant. Egg production has not been exhaustively studied, but over 400 eggs have been produced by a single female. Eggs hatch in 7-14 days.
Females deposit eggs in clusters of about 20, but counts of 14 and 28 eggs per mass are especially common, probably reflecting ovariole number. Overwintered adults produce, on average, about 120 eggs per female, with over 500 being produced by an occasional individual. The egg production by first generation adults is lower, usually 40-80 per female. The eggs are yellowish-white, and slightly greenish initially. They are somewhat barrel-shaped, attached one end to a leaf, and with a row of 30-35 small processes ringing the upper end of the egg. During warm weather the incubation period is typically 5-6 days (range about 3-14 days).
The adults fly at night, but are not attracted to lights. The moths are fairly large for this group of moths, with wing lengths of 9.5-13.0 mm. The front wings are yellowish-brown, marked with gray, whereas the hind wings are grayish. Overwintering occurs in the adult stage, with the adults in reproductive diapause. Egg production under laboratory conditions averages 470 eggs per female (range 170-830 eggs). Females deposit more eggs on larger plants (Zangerl and Berenbaum, 1992).
Females deposit eggs in clusters, usually numbering from 10 to 15 per egg mass. Eggs measure about 0.9 mm long and 0.6 mm wide, and are elliptical. The eggs initially are white, but after 4-5 days they turn yellow. The eggs are covered with a sticky gelatinous material that hardens, causing the eggs to adhere to the substrate. They are deposited in various locations, including on the foliage and stems of plants, and below-ground, but most commonly they are deposited at the surface of the soil adjacent to the host plant. The egg production varies only a few (15-60 per female) when larvae feed on less suitable host plants such as grasses, to numerous (1500 or more per female) when favorable host plants such as peanut or velvetbean are available. Eggs deposited during the warmer seasons hatch in 10-30 days, with an average of about 15-17 days during the summer months. During the winter months eggs may require 100 days to hatch viability is greatly reduced during the winter. The eggs...
THE days are lengthening, the sun is getting stronger, the wild birds are singing and our gardens are starting to reawaken - spring is on its way. This is also the time of year when the call of nature starts to affect our chickens. Egg production increases dramatically, as resplendent males strut their stuff while mating vigorously, but it also signals the start of the 'broody-hen season'. This, for the uninitiated, is when a female decides that it is the right time for her to sit on her eggs (ie incubate them) and produce some chicks. As poultry keepers this is something which we cannot initiate or dictate to her, but is governed by the hen's hormones. Inevitably, for first-time poultry keepers this causes panic, and I know my phone will be red hot with cries for advice and for confirmation that the hen is just broody and not suffering from some dreadful disease. First timers often worry that they will miss the symptoms of a broody hen, but her behaviour will be so different from the...
It's easy to end up applying too much fertilizer in the mistaken belief that if a little is good, more is better. Unfortunately, excess nutrients are as harmful to plants as nutrient deficiency is. Excess nitrogen, for example, causes stems and leaves to grow rapidly, producing juicy growth that's a delicacy for aphids and spider mites because it's easy to puncture and consume. An imbalance of phosphorus encourages egg production in spider mites.
At dusk (she will be much calmer then) move her from the chicken house, dust her with a good louse powder, such as Ruby, as any visitors can cause her irritation and make her shuffle when she starts to warm up on her eggs. Then place her, shut in, onto any old egg overnight to allow her to settle in her new surroundings.
There are two ways of managing chickens in this situation. You can put the chicken house down at the bottom near the terraces, or you can put it up at the top and the chickens will kick this mulch down to where it stops against this bottom fence. That will be the place from which we collect the mulch for the garden. This is what I
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