Outhouses will transmit pollution three meters (10 feet) vertically and one meter (3 feet) laterally, in dry soil.
Source: Rybczynski, et al. /
Technology for Water f
Supply and Sanitation - i
Low-Cost Technology Options for Sanitation, A State of the Art Review and Annotated Bibliography. World Bank. p. 52.
Outhouses will transmit pollution three meters (10 feet) below the outhouse hole and one meter (3 feet) sideways in dry soil. They can be expected to leak pollution 50 feet sideways in wet soils, following the direction of groundwater flow.
Another step up the ladder, one finds the septic tank, a common method of human waste disposal in rural and suburban areas of the United States. In this system the turd is deposited into a container of water, usually purified drinking water, and flushed away.
After the floating turd travels through a sewage pipe, it plops into a fairly large underground storage tank, or septic tank, usually made of concrete and sometimes of fiberglass. In Pennsylvania (U.S.), a 900 gallon tank is the minimum size allowed for a home with three or fewer bedrooms.1 The heavier solids settle to the bottom of the tank and the liquids drain off into a leach field, which consists of an array of drain pipes situated below the ground surface allowing the liquid to seep out into the soil. The wastewater is expected to be undergoing anaerobic decomposition while in the tank. When septic tanks fill up, they are pumped out and the waste material is trucked to a sewage treatment plant, although sometimes it's illegally dumped.
In the event of poorly drained soil, either low-lying or with a high clay content, a standard leach field will not work very well, especially when the ground is already saturated with rainwater or snow melt. One can't drain wastewater into soil that is already saturated with water. That's when the sand mound sewage disposal system is
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