Pathogen Survival By Composting Or Soil Application

Unheated Composting Toilet Soil Anaerobic (Three mo. min. Thermophilic

Pathogen Application Digestion retention time) Composting

Enteric viruses . . May survive 5 mo .Over 3 mo Probably elim. .Killed rapidly at 60C

Salmonellae . . . .3 mo. to 1 yr Several wks Few may surv. .Dead in 20 hrs. at 60C

Shigellae Up to 3 mo A few days Prob. elim Killed in 1 hr. at 55C

or in 10 days at 40C

E. coli Several mo Several wks Prob. elim Killed rapidly above 60C

Cholera vibrio . . .1 wk. or less 1 or 2 wks Prob. elim Killed rapidly above 55C

Leptospires . . . .Up to 15 days . . . .2 days or less . . .Eliminated . . . .Killed in 10 min. at 55C

Entamoeba . . . .1 wk. or less 3 wks or less . . . .Eliminated . . . .Killed in 5 min. at 50C or histolytica 1 day at 400 C

cysts

Hookworm 20 weeks Will survive May survive . . .Killed in 5 min. at 50C

eggs or 1 hr. at 45C

Roundworm . . . Several yrs Many mo Survive well . . .Killed in 2 hrs. at 55C, 20

(Ascaris) eggs hrs. at 50C, 200 hrs. at 450C

Schistosome . . . One mo One mo Eliminated . . . .Killed in 1 hr. at 500C

eggs

Taenia eggs . . . . Over 1 year A few mo May survive . . .Killed in 10 min. at 590C, over 4 hrs. at 450C

Source: Feachem et al., 1980

Table 7.15

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Organic Gardeners Composting

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