Thermal Death Points For Common Parasites And Pathogens

Thermal Death Time Chart

Ascaris lumbricoides eggs Within 1 hour at temps over 500C Brucella abortus or B. suis Within 1 hour at 550C Corynebacterium diptheriae Within 45 minutes at 550C Entamoeba histolytica cysts Within a few minutes at 450C Escherichia coli One hr at 550C or 15-20 min. at 600C Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus Within 10 minutes at 500C Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis . Within 15 to 20 minutes at 660C Necator americanus Within 50 minutes at 450C Salmonella spp Within 1 hr at 55C 15-20 min. at...

Sawdust Decomposition

Average of all softwoods . . . .12.0 The lower the number, the slower the decomposition rate. Hardwood sawdust decomposes faster than softwood sawdust. Source Haug, Roger T. 1993 . The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 U.S.A. as reported in Biocycle - Journal of Composting and Recycling. December, 1998. p. 19. That's also why humanure and urine alone will not compost. They contain too much nitrogen and not enough carbon,...

Four Stages Of Compost

There is a huge difference between a backyard humanure composter and a municipal composter. Municipal composters handle large batches of organic materials all at once, while backyard com-posters continuously produce a small amount of organic material every day. Municipal composters, therefore, are batch composters, while backyard composters tend to be continuous composters. When organic material is composted in a batch, four distinct stages of the composting process are apparent. Although the...

Builtin Sawdust Toilet With Hinged Seat

Sawdust Toilets

The above diagram and photos below show a simple sawdust toilet permanently built into a toilet room. The compost receptacle bucket sits directly on the floor. A standard toilet seat is attached to an 18 square piece of plywood, which lifts on hinges to allow easy access when removing the compost material. Bucket setback from the front edge of the plywood is 1 amp 1 2. Top surface of plywood is 1 2 lower than top of bucket rim allowing bucket to protrude through cabinet to contact bottom of...

The Ceaseless Cycle Of Compost Making

The Ceaseless Cycle Compost Making

Allow to age. j Fill second side, let first Empty aged compost. Allow second side to age Start filling first side again. Let second side age and shrink. If you want your compost to age for two years instead of one, add a fourth bin to the system. Turning the compost is not necessary read Chapter 3 . A roof over the center bin will keep the cover material dry and unfrozen in the winter months in cold climates see figure 8.4 . attract flies should be dug into the top center of the pile. Keep a...