Parasitic Worm Egg Death

minute minute hours Roundworm 0.0 4 years minutes seconds Source Compost, Fertilizer, and Biogas Production from Human and Farm Wastes in the People's Republic of China, (1978), M. G. McGarry and J. Stainforth, editors, International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada. p. 43. mophilic compost system is important. Nevertheless, there is no proven, natural, low-tech method for destroying human pathogens in organic refuse that is as successful and accessible to the average human as...

Day In The Life Of A Turd

When I was a kid, I listened to army veterans talking about their stints in the Korean War. Usually after a beer or two, they'd turn their conversation to the outhouses used by the Koreans. They were amazed, even mystified, about the fact that the Koreans tried to lure passersby into their outhouses by making the toilets especially attractive. The idea of someone wanting someone else's crap always brought out a loud laugh from the vets. Perhaps this attitude sums up the attitudes of Americans....

Waste Vs Manure

By dumping soil nutrients down the toilet, we increase our need for synthetic chemical fertilizers. Today, pollution from agriculture, caused from siltation (erosion) and nutrient runoff due to excessive or incorrect use of fertilizers,32 is now the largest diffuse source of water pollution in our rivers, lakes, and streams.33 Chemical fertilizers provide a quick fix of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium for impoverished soils. However, it's estimated that 25-85 of chemical nitrogen applied to...

The Tao Of Compost

Organic material should be recycled by every person on the planet, and recycling should be as normal as brushing teeth or bathing. Organic materials can be collected by municipalities and composted at central composting facilities. This is now done in many parts of the world where food discards are composted for urban communities. Toilet materials are not yet being collected and centrally composted in very many places, although such collection will undoubtedly increase as time passes. We can...

Asian Recycling

The Asian people have recycled humanure for thousands of years. The Chinese have used humanure agriculturally since the Shang Dynasty, 3,000-4,000 years ago. Why haven't we westerners The Asian cultures, namely Chinese, Korean, Japanese and others, evolved to understand human excrement as a natural resource rather than a waste material. Where we had human waste, they had night soil. We produced waste and pollution they produced soil nutrients and food. It's clear that Asians have been more...

Pathogenic Populations And A Year Retention Time

Fecophobes, as we have seen throughout this book, believe that all human excrement is extremely dangerous and will cause the end of the world as we know it if not immediately flushed down a toilet. Some insist that humanure compost piles must be turned frequently to ensure that all parts of the pile are subjected to the internal high temperatures. The only problem with that idea is that most people produce organic refuse a little at a time. For example, most people defecate once a day. A large...

Compost Defined

According to the dictionary, compost is a mixture of decomposing vegetable refuse, manure, etc. for fertilizing and conditioning the soil. The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering defines composting with a mouthful The biological decomposition and stabilization of organic substrates, under conditions that allow development of thermophilic temperatures as a result of biologically produced heat, to produce a final product that is stable, free of pathogens and plant seeds, and can be...

Solar Power In A Banana Peel

Organic refuse contains stored solar energy. Every apple core or potato peel holds a tiny amount of heat and light, just like a piece of firewood. Perhaps S. Sides of the Mother Earth News states it more succinctly Plants convert solar energy into food for animals (ourselves included). Then the refuse from these animals along with dead plant and animal bodies, 'lie down in the dung heap,' are composted, and 'rise again in the corn.' This cycle of light is the central reason why composting is...

Potential Pathogens In Urine

Healthy urine on its way out of the human body may contain up to 1,000 bacteria, of several types, per milliliter. More than 100,000 bacteria of a single type per milliliter signals a urinary tract infection. Infected individuals will pass pathogens in the urine that may include Salmonella typhi Typhoid Leptospira Yersinia Escherichia Schistosoma haematobium schistosomiasis Source Feachem et al., 1980 and Franceys, et al. 1992 and Lewis, Ricki. (1992). FDA Consumer, September 1992. p. 41....

The Secret To Composting Humanure Is To Keep It Covered

Always thoroughly cover toilet deposits with a clean, organic cover material such as rotting sawdust, peat moss, leaf mould, rice hulls, or other suitable material to prevent odor, absorb urine and balance the nitrogen. Always cover toilet deposits again, after adding them to the compost pile, with a clean cover material such as hay, straw, weeds, grass clip pings, leaves or other suitable material in order to prevent odors and flies, to create air spaces in the compost pile and to balance the...

Evapotranspiration

Wick Hydroponic Diagram

Plants can absorb graywater through their roots and then transpire the moisture into the air. A graywater system that relies on such transpiration is called an Evapotranspiration System. Such a system may consist of a tank to settle out the solids, with the effluent draining or being pumped into a shallow sand or gravel bed covered with vegetation. Canna lilies, iris, elephant ears, cattails, ginger lily, and umbrella tree, among others, have been used with these systems. An average two-bedroom...

Practice Makes Compost

Have Your Shit Together

After reading this chapter one may become overwhelmed with all that is involved in composting bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, thermophiles, mesophiles, C N ratios, oxygen, moisture, temperatures, bins, pathogens, curing and biodiversity. How do you translate this into your own personal situation and locate it all in your own backyard How does one become an accomplished composter, a master composter That's easy just do it. Then keep doing it. Throw the books away not this one, of course and get...

Normal Composting Bin Sequence

Humanure Compost Bin

It's very important to understand that two factors are involved in destroying potential pathogens in humanure. Along with heat, the time factor is important. Once the organic material in a compost pile has been heated by thermophilic microorganisms, it should be left to age or season. This part of the process allows for the final decomposition to take place, decomposition that may be dominated by fungi and macroorganisms such as earthworms and sowbugs. Therefore, a good compost system will...

Asian Composting

Vietnam Toilet System

It is well known that Asians have recycled humanure for centuries, possibly millennia. How did they do it Historical information concerning the composting of humanure in Asia seems difficult to find. Rybczynski et al. state that composting was only introduced to China in a systematic way in the 1930s and that it wasn't until 1956 that composting toilets were used on a wide scale in Vietnam.1 On the other hand, Franceys et al. tell us that composting has been practiced by farmers and gardeners...

Technisch Bureau Hamar

I well remember in early 1979 when I first informed a friend that I intended to compost my own manure and grow my own food with it. Oh my God, you can't do that A young English couple was visiting me one summer after I had been composting humanure for about six years. One evening, as dinner was being prepared, the couple suddenly understood the horrible reality of their situation the food they were about to eat was recycled human shit. When this fact abruptly dawned upon them, it seemed to set...

The Ego Vs The

There are numerous theoretical reasons why we humans have strayed so far from a benign symbiotic relationship with the planet, and have instead taken on the visage, if not the behavior, of planetary pathogens. Human beings, like all living things on this planet, are inextricably intertwined with the elements of nature. We are threads in the tapestry of life. We constantly breathe the atmosphere that envelopes the planet we drink the fluids that flow over the planet's surface we eat the...

The End Is Near

Clothes Ripped Off Crowd

Ladies and gentlemen, allow me to introduce you to a new and revolutionary literary device known as the self-interview Applause heard in background. Someone whoops. Today I'll be interviewing myself. In fact, here I am now. Myself walks in. Me Good morning, sir. Haven't I seen you somewhere before Myself Cut the crap. It's too early in the morning for this. You see me every time you look in the mirror, which isn't very often, thank God. What, for crying out loud, would possess you to interview...

Commercial Composting Toilets

Compost Latrine

Commercial composting toilets have been popular in Scandinavia for some time at least twenty-one different composting toilets were on the market in Norway alone in 1975.9 One of the most popular types of commercially available composting toilets in the United States today is the multrum toilet, invented by a Swedish engineer and first put into production in 1964. Fecal material and urine are deposited together into a single chamber with a double bottom. The decomposition takes place over a...

Sawdust Toilet Statistics

Sawdust Compost Toilet

One hundred pounds of human body weight will fill approximately three gallons .4 cubic feet, 693 cubic inches, or approximately 11 liters in a sawdust toilet per week - this volume includes the sawdust cover material. One hundred pounds of human body weight will also require approximately 3 gallons of semi-dry, deciduous, rotting sawdust per week for use as a cover material in a toilet. This amounts to a requirement of approximately 20 cubic feet of sawdust cover material per one hundred pounds...

Compost Thermometers

Commercial Composting Toilet Systems

REOTEMP 10656 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121 USA Ph 858-784-0710 Toll free 800-648-7737 Fax 858-784-0720 email reotemp reotemp.com website www.reotemp.com A Sampler of Commercial Composting Toilets and Systems For more information about these and other composting toilets, search the internet. For more information about these and other composting toilets, search the internet. Clockwise from top left Sven Linden, Sven Linden, Aquatron, Dutch Hamar, Alascan, Bio-Sun, Sun-Mar. Clockwise from...

Microorganisms In Compost

Actinobifida chromogena Microbispora bispora Micropolyspora faeni Nocardia sp. Pseudocardia thermophilia Streptomyces rectus S. thermofuscus S. thermoviolaceus S. thermovulgaris S. violaceus-ruber Thermoactinomyces sac chari Aspergillus fumigatus Humicola grisea H. insolens H. lanuginosa Malbranchea pulchella Myriococcum themophilum Paecilomyces variotti Papulaspora thermophila Scytalidium thermophilim Sporotrichum thermophile Source Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. Eds. 1996 ....

Thermal Death Points For Common Parasites And Pathogens

Thermal Death Time Chart

Ascaris lumbricoides eggs Within 1 hour at temps over 500C Brucella abortus or B. suis Within 1 hour at 550C Corynebacterium diptheriae Within 45 minutes at 550C Entamoeba histolytica cysts Within a few minutes at 450C Escherichia coli One hr at 550C or 15-20 min. at 600C Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus Within 10 minutes at 500C Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis . Within 15 to 20 minutes at 660C Necator americanus Within 50 minutes at 450C Salmonella spp Within 1 hr at 55C 15-20 min. at...

Compost Biodiversity

Compost Anaerobic

Compost is normally populated by three general categories of microorganisms bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi see Figure 3.3 and Table 3.6 . It is primarily the bacteria, and specifically the ther-mophilic bacteria, that create the heat of the compost pile. Although considered bacteria, actinomycetes are effectively intermediates between bacteria and fungi because they look similar to fungi and have similar nutritional preferences and growth habits. They tend to be more commonly found in the...

Fertilizers Once Marketed

Eds. . 1960 . The Complete Book of Composting. Rodale Books Inc. Emmaus, PA. pp. 789, 790. 1955 . Commercial Fertilizers - Their Sources and Use, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York into and concentrate in sewage sludge at wastewater treatment facilities. One study indicated that roundworm eggs could be recovered from sludge at all stages of the wastewater treatment process, and that two-thirds of the samples examined had viable eggs.45 Agricultural use of...

Fecophobia And The Pathogen Issue

The belief that humanure is unsafe for agricultural use is called fecophobia. People who are fecophobic can suffer from severe fecophobia or a relatively mild fecophobia, the mildest form being little more than a healthy concern about personal hygiene. Severe feco-phobics do not want to use humanure for food growing, composted or not. They believe that it's dangerous and unwise to use such a material in their garden. Milder fecophobics may, however, compost humanure and use the finished compost...

Four Stages Of Compost

There is a huge difference between a backyard humanure composter and a municipal composter. Municipal composters handle large batches of organic materials all at once, while backyard com-posters continuously produce a small amount of organic material every day. Municipal composters, therefore, are batch composters, while backyard composters tend to be continuous composters. When organic material is composted in a batch, four distinct stages of the composting process are apparent. Although the...

Conventional Sewage Treatment Plants

Sewage Treatment Plants

The only sewage digestion process producing a guaranteed pathogen-free sludge is batch thermophilic digestion in which all of the sludge is maintained at 50oC 122oF for 13 days. Other sewage digestion processes will allow the survival of worm eggs and possibly pathogenic bacteria. Typical sewage treatment plants instead use a continuous process where wastewater is added daily or more frequently, thereby guaranteeing the survival of pathogens see Figure 7.2 . I took an interest in my local...

Vermicomposting

Vermicomposting, or worm composting, involves the use of redworms such as Eisenis fetida or Lumbricus rubellus to consume organic material either in specially designed worm boxes, or in large-scale, outdoor compost piles. Redworms prefer a dark, cool, well-aerated space, and thrive on moist bedding such as shredded newspaper. Kitchen food scraps placed in worm boxes are consumed by the worms and converted into worm castings, which can then be used like finished compost to grow plants....

The Ceaseless Cycle Of Compost Making

The Ceaseless Cycle Compost Making

Allow to age. j Fill second side, let first Empty aged compost. Allow second side to age Start filling first side again. Let second side age and shrink. If you want your compost to age for two years instead of one, add a fourth bin to the system. Turning the compost is not necessary read Chapter 3 . A roof over the center bin will keep the cover material dry and unfrozen in the winter months in cold climates see figure 8.4 . attract flies should be dug into the top center of the pile. Keep a...

Mexican Biological Digester

Thermophilic Compost Toilet

Well, where it goes depends on the type of waste disposal system used. Let's start with the simplest the Mexican biological digester, also known as the stray dog. In India, this may be known as the family pig. I spent a few months in southern Mexico in the late 1970s in Quintana Roo on the Yucatan peninsula. There, toilets were not available people simply used the sand dunes along the coast. No problem, though. One of the small, unkempt and ubiquitous Mexican dogs would wait nearby with...

Builtin Sawdust Toilet With Hinged Seat

Sawdust Toilets

The above diagram and photos below show a simple sawdust toilet permanently built into a toilet room. The compost receptacle bucket sits directly on the floor. A standard toilet seat is attached to an 18 square piece of plywood, which lifts on hinges to allow easy access when removing the compost material. Bucket setback from the front edge of the plywood is 1 amp 1 2. Top surface of plywood is 1 2 lower than top of bucket rim allowing bucket to protrude through cabinet to contact bottom of...

Four Necessities For Good Compost

A dry pile will not work it will just sit there and look bored. It's amazing how much moisture an active compost pile can absorb. When people who don't have any experience with compost try to picture a humanure compost pile in someone's backyard, they imagine a giant, fly-infested, smelly heap of excrement, draining all manner of noxious, stinky liquids out of the bottom of the compost pile. However, a compost pile is not a pile of garbage or waste. Thanks to the...

Constructed Wetland Requires Four Components For Functional Success

1 A substrate such as gravel 4 Naturally occurring microorganisms both aerobic and anaerobic Two or more growing seasons may be necessary before plants are completely established. Sources University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Circular 912, Aquascaping Planting and Maintenance. and National Small Flows Clearinghouse, Pipeline, Summer 1998, Vol. 9, No. 3 Constructed Wetlands, A Natural Treatment Alternative. Broad-leaved cattail Typha latifolia Plants for constructed...

Ownerbuilt Composting Toilets

Owner-built composting toilets are in widespread use throughout the world since many people do not have the financial resources required to purchase commercially-produced toilets. Owner-built devices tend to be low-temperature composting toilets, although they can conceivably be thermophilic toilet systems if properly managed. The objectives of any composting toilet should be to achieve safe and sanitary treatment of fecal material, to conserve water, to function with a minimum of maintenance...

Compost Testing Labs

WOODS END AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE, INC. PO Box 297, Mt. Vernon, ME 04352 USA Ph 207-293-2457 or 800 451 0337 FAX 207-293-2488 email com-post woodsend.org website woodsend.org Ascaris and coliform testing as well as full nutrient tests. Sells the Solvita R Maturity Test Kit which is now approved in CA, CT, IL, MA, ME, NJ, NM, OH, TX, and WA. Has developed a soil-respiration test kit that is approved by the USDA for soil quality investigations. WOODS END EUROPE AUC - Agrar und Umwelt-Consult GmbH...

Compost Miracles

Compost Tea Brewer Plans

Compost microorganisms not only convert organic material into humus, but they also degrade toxic chemicals into simpler, benign, organic molecules. These chemicals include gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, oil, grease, wood preservatives, PCBs, coal gasification wastes, refinery wastes, insecticides, herbicides, TNT, and other explosives.59 In one experiment in which compost piles were laced with insecticides and herbicides, the insecticide carbofuran was completely degraded, and the herbicide...

The Compost Bins

A sawdust toilet requires three components 1 the toilet receptacle 2 cover materials and 3 a compost bin system. The system will not work without all three of these components. The toilet is only the collection stage of the process. Since the composting takes place away from the toilet, the compost bin system is important. 1 Use at least a double-chambered, above-ground compost bin. A three-chambered bin is recommended. Deposit in one chamber for a period of time e.g., a year , then switch to...

Two Cell Constructed Subsurface Flow Wetland For Graywater Or Blackwater

Subsurface Constructed Flow Wetland

Working With Nature - New Wastewater Technologies for Pennsylvania - Onlot and Small Flow Systems. Most biological recycling of organic nutrients occurs in the upper layers of the soil, called the bio-active zone. Typical wastewater systems, such as septic systems and leach fields, are placed below the bio-active zone allowing little nutrient recycling to take place. A constructed wetland allows the nutrients in wastewater effluent to be beneficially used by...

Waste Stabilization Ponds

Human Respiratory Tract

Perhaps one of the most ancient wastewater treatment methods known to humans are waste stabilization ponds, also known as oxidation ponds or lagoons. They're often found in small rural areas where land is available and cheap. Such ponds tend to be only a meter to a meter and a half deep, but vary in size and depth and can be three or more meters deep.14 They utilize natural processes to treat waste materials, relying on algae, bacteria and zooplankton to reduce the organic content of the...

Sawdust Decomposition

Average of all softwoods . . . .12.0 The lower the number, the slower the decomposition rate. Hardwood sawdust decomposes faster than softwood sawdust. Source Haug, Roger T. 1993 . The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 U.S.A. as reported in Biocycle - Journal of Composting and Recycling. December, 1998. p. 19. That's also why humanure and urine alone will not compost. They contain too much nitrogen and not enough carbon,...

Simple Urinal

Humanure Compost Bin

Want to collect urine only Maybe you want a urinal in a private office, bedroom or shop. Simply fill a five-gallon bucket with rotted sawdust or other suitable material, and put a tight lid on it. A bucket full of sawdust will still have enough air space in it to hold about a week's worth of urine from one adult. Urinate into the bucket, and replace the lid when not in use. For a fancy urinal, place the sawdust bucket in a toilet cabinet with a regular toilet seat. When the bucket is full,...

Ground Water Pollution From Septic Systems

Humans started disposing of human waste by defecating into a hole in the ground or an outhouse, then discovered we could float our turds out to the hole using water and never have to leave our shelter. However, one of the unfortunate problems with septic systems is, like outhouses, they pollute our groundwater. At the end of the 20th century, there were 22 million septic system sites in the United States, p fjCIVG O serving one fourth to one third of f the U.S. population. They were notorious...

Agricultural Use Of Sewage Sludge

Now here's where a thoughtful person may ask, Why not put sewage sludge back into the soil for agricultural purposes One reason government regulation. When I asked the supervisor of my local wastewater treatment plant if the one million gallons of sludge the plant produces each year, from a population of 8,000 people, was being applied to agricultural land, he said, It takes six months and five thousand dollars to get a permit for a land application. Another problem is that due to regulations,...

The Sawdust Toilet On Camping Trips

Humanure composters have tricks up their sleeves. Ever go on a week-long camping trip or to a camping music festival and hate using those awful portable chemical toilets that stink If you have a humanure compost bin at home, simply take two five gallon buckets with you on the trip. Fill one with a cover material, such as sawdust, and put a lid on it. Set it inside the empty bucket and pack it along with your other camping gear. Voila One portable composting toilet When you set up your camp,...