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Maxs Woodworking Plans

This one-of-a-kind guide, which has been entrusted and used by inexperienced and experienced builders worldwide, allows you to: Build whatever you want just as good as a woodworking pro. Take your original idea & incorporate it with a variety of plans to create a truly amazing structure. Simply the woodworking and building process. Have your project built & ready for use in just days. Wipeout any and all stress that often comes along with woodworking and building projects. Finally see your project go from a dream to reality. Plans: Arbor, Barn, Bat House, Bed, Bedroom, Bee Hive, Bench, Billiard, Bird Feeder, Birdhouse, Boat, Book Case, Box, Bridge, Bucket, Cabin, Cabinet, Candle, Carport, Cart, CD&Dvd Holder, Cellar, Chair, Chest, Chicken House, Children Room, Clock, Coaster, Coffee Table, Coffee Table, Cold Frame, Compost Bin, Computer Desk, Cradle, Craft, Cutting Board, Deck, Desk, Diy, Dog House, Door, Dresser, Drill Press, Easel, Entertainment, Farms shop, Fence, FirePlaces & Mantel, Floor, For Kids, Frames, Garage, Garden, Gazebo, GreenHouse, Guitar, Gun Rack, Hammock, Humidor, Hutch, Jig, Kitchen, Knife Block, Lamp, Landscape, Lathe, MailBox, Mirror, Miscellaneous, Outdoor, Pergola, Planter, Playhouse, Rabbit House, Rack, Router, Screen, Scroll Saw, Shed, Shelf, Signs & Displays, Stand, Stool, Storage, Swing, Table, Tools, Toy, Tray, Trellis, Utility Building, Wagon, Weather Station, Wind Generator, Windmill Continue reading...

Maxs Woodworking Plans Summary


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Contents: Guide, Plans, Ebook
Author: Max Millard
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This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

The Conditions That Add Up To Climate

The degree to which the successful growing of each vegetable type is dependent on hot and cold weather conditions indicates that temperature is the most important aspect of climate to consider when you're planning your vegetable garden. At this point it's helpful to take a good look at how temperature and other basic climatic conditions affect your garden. Rainfall and sunlight also play a most important part in how your garden grows, so let's take a look at these three elements and how they work with your plants.

Choosing the best time to plant fruits

Here's the basic principle about timing, folks Plant to allow maximum time for the fruit plant to get growing before the most stressful conditions of the year occur. In colder climates, get the plants in the ground in the springtime so they can enjoy a nice, long summer before cold weather arrives in the fall. Wait till after danger of frost is past so young buds aren't harmed or killed. Plant bareroot plants as soon as you can work the ground in spring.

Selecting and using appropriate annuals and biennials

When you choose annuals and biennials, select varieties that fit with your overall planting scheme and that can take care of themselves. Check the hardiness (in gardening parlance that's how cold-tolerant a plant is, not how tough it is) and earliest-planting-date information on the seed packet if you're planting from seed (the most sustainable way to go). Hardy plants can overwinter as seeds in the ground tender ones that can't take freezing winters should be planted in spring, whether from seed or plants. You can also find half-hardy annuals and biennials that put up with yucky cold weather but not frost. Let natives go to seed instead of cutting them back before their natural life cycle is completed.

Winterizing your plants and fish

Fish that remain in the pond slow down and go dormant in cold weather, just like hardy plants. Reduce feeding in the fall. Eventually, they'll retreat to the deepest part of the pool, perhaps burrowing into some muck there. If you fear for their survival, you can net them and keep them in an aquarium for the winter.

Cultural Requirements

The duration and intensity of sunshine the quality of the soil and such environmental factors as temperature, annual rainfall, humidity, and wind are all variables that affect plant growth. As you may have noticed, not everyone requires the same amount of food or water. Also, some of us actually like cold weather, whereas others prefer the heat. The specific cultural requirements of a plant in a vegetable garden are different from those of a plant in the wildflower meadow, as are those that evolved in alpine versus tropical versus desert environments. Cultural requirements for sunshine, soil quality, water, and climate are described below.

Ornamenting New Homes

The height of the land above the sea-level and above the surrounding country should be considered. The higher the land the better and purer the air, the larger and more pleasing the landscape effect, and more perfect drainage may be obtained. There are, however, serious objections to extreme elevation and abrupt slopes which increase the effort needed to get to and from the place, and increase the cost of fitting the land and keeping lawn, walks, and drives in good condition. A southern or southeastern slope will afford much shelter where the prevailing winds during cold weather are from the north or northwest, and, if the landscape effect is equally good, should be selected in preference to a western or northwestern slope. Economy of fuel demands a close construction of the building by lining the walls with some non-conducting material like paper, building-felt, etc., and in very cold weather it is a matter requiring serious consideration how to heat the necessary amount of cold...

Production requirements

It requires 80-90 density shade, either artificial or natural a nitrogen-poor soil, which can range in structure from sandy to heavy clayey loam an acid soil with pH between 4.5 and 7 and a climate with four distinct seasons to encourage the plants to progress through their cycle in order to reach maturity. A cold winter is required for stimulation of the root to encourage the following year's growth.

Cold And Heat Tolerance

Some trees are very cold hardy and withstand extremely cold temperatures, while others are killed by a mild frost. In some cases a tree may be fairly cold hardy while dormant but may become active too early in the spring and suffer damage by a late frost. Other species may be able to tolerate very high temperatures and some withstand both extreme cold and heat quite well. Plant hardiness zones indicating average annual minimum temperatures have been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and are shown for Utah on page 11. A detailed map of these zones for Utah is available from the Utah Climate Center at Utah State University or at

Providing an herbs basic needs

Herbs are easy and fun to grow inside, which may also extend the harvest for you if you have cold winters. They're best on a kitchen win-dowsill, provided it gets plenty of sun. That way, they're handy when you need them for a recipe plus the sight of them certainly adds character and pleasant fragrance to your kitchen. Here are couple other tips

Planting and Early Care

Several weeks after planting, the plants will begin to flower from buds formed within the crown the preceding fall. If you are using the matted-row system, remove these flowers to prevent fruiting and encourage runners. Berries on first-year plants rob the plants of energy necessary for growth, runner production, and winter survival. Although some strawberry cultivars produce only one flower cluster per plant, others produce several sets, so you may need to check the planting and remove flowers several times.

The Sun Lounge and Conservatory

Achimenes Hybrida Dot

But not only is the sun lounge an ideal place for sitting in, il is also ideal as a growing room lor many plants, and likewise, of course, the conservatory. We have no heating in our sun lounge except on very frosty nights when we bring in a small electric fan heater. This keeps the temperature just above freezing point and allows us to leave Regal and Zonal pelargoniums, fuchsias and a fruiting lemon there during the winter months. Also there are various ferns and Begonia rex which look a little tired in the very cold weather but soon pick up as conditions improve. plants by late June. These tubers should be pressed hollow side uppermost into moist peat and coarse sand and placed in a warm part of the greenhouse with shade from strong sunshine. Light spraying overhead is appreciated, but overwatering must be avoided, especially in cold weather. When the growths are a few inches high, pot the plants up in 5-in pots using John Innes No. 2 Potting Compost. Place the tubers half way down...

Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze Hemiptera Miridae

Miridae Europe

Two generations occur annually in Minnesota and, apparently, over most of this insect's range in North America. Total development time from the egg to the adult stage is estimated to require 33.5 days. Another two weeks are usually required before eggs are produced, so total generation time is about six weeks. The eggs are the overwintering stage. Hatching first occurs in May, and by mid-June first generation adults are present. Nymphs of the second generation can be observed in July, and adults in August. By mid-August overwintering eggs are produced. The two generations may overlap considerably, and in cool summers the development of the second generation is delayed so that second generation adults are not produced until September. All stages except the eggs are killed with the onset of cold weather. In contrast, there is principally one generation per year in northern Saskatchewan. Most of the eggs laid by the spring generation enter diapause only a few,...

Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer Homoptera Aphididae

Key Aphididae

The life cycle varies considerably, depending on the presence of cold winters. van Emden et al. (1969) provided a useful review of the life cycle. Development can be rapid, often 10-12 days for a complete generation, and with over 20 annual generations reported in mild climates. Where suitable host plants cannot persist, the aphid overwinters in the egg stage on Prunus spp. In the spring, soon after the plant breaks dormancy and begins to grow, the eggs hatch and the nymphs feed on flowers, young foliage, and stems. After several generation on Prunus spp., dispersants from overwintering hosts deposit nymphs on summer hosts. In cold climates, adults return to Prunus spp. in the autumn, where mating occurs and eggs are deposited. All generations except the autumn generation culminating in egg production are parthenogenetic. In the Pacific Northwest, both yellow and green strains coexist (Tamaki et al., 1982). The yellow strain is holocyclic a sexual...

Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green Homoptera Pseudococcidae

Image Maconellicoccus Hirsutus Green

In subtropical climates a generation is completed in about 30-40 days and about 10 generations occur annually. Complete development from egg to the adult stage normally occurs in 25-26 days, but it is temperature dependent. In Egypt, reproduction is usually parthenogenetic, but males are sometimes produced, and both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction occurs in many populations. In the Caribbean region, biparental reproduction apparently occurs exclusively (Williams, 1996). Hibiscus mealybug survives during the cold weather in all stages, but the egg stage is particularly hardy.

Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus Coleoptera Bruchidae

Callosobruchus Chinensis

The eggs are oval, and broader at one end. The female glues the egg to the seed, and the side that attaches to the seed is flattened. The egg is 0.4-0.8 mm long and 0.3-0.5 mm wide. The duration of this stage is only 3-4 days under ideal conditions, but may extend to over 30 days during cold weather. The young larva chews a hole through the egg chorion directly into the seed, or through the pod wall and then into the seed. Females of cowpea weevil commonly produce 100 or more eggs during their life span, and southern cowpea weevil about 50, although some strains produce fewer eggs. Access by adults to water or sugar water increases fecundity. Females also produce more eggs when they are not constrained by availability of suitable oviposition sites.

Climate of the British Isles

Cloud Formation British Isles

In contrast, inland areas on the great landmasses at the same latitude have a more extreme climate, with very cold winters and hot summers the features of a continental climate. Whereas most of the British Isles lowland is normally above freezing for most of the winter, average mid-winter temperatures for Moscow and Hudson Bay (both continental climate situations) are nearer 15 C. The sequence of depressions (low-pressure areas) is displaced from time to time by the development of high-pressure areas (anti-cyclones). These usually bring periods of settled drier weather. In the summer these are associated with hotter weather with air drawn in from the hot European land mass or North Africa. In the winter, clear cold weather occurs as air is drawn in from the very cold, dry continental landmass. In the spring, these anti-cyclones often lead to radiation frosts, which are damaging to young plants and top fruit blossom.

Chlorochroa uhleri Stl Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Stem Plant With Seed Heads Alabama

Three or four generations of Say stink bug are known from New Mexico. The overwintering adults deposit eggs in late April or May, with first generation adults appearing in June, second in August, and third in September. A small fourth generation sometimes occurs, though many nymphs from this generation perish with the onset of cold weather. The adults from generations 2-4 enter diapause during late October or early November, and re-emerge the following spring. A complete generation requires about 80 days. Uhler stink bug's biology

Phyllophaga and others Coleoptera Scarabaeidae

Larvae Robberflies

The general three-year life cycle starts with oviposi-tion in the spring or early summer, followed by feeding and growth until autumn when cold weather induces a period of inactivity, and overwintering by second instar larvae. During the second year, feeding is resumed in the spring, the third instar is attained, and feeding continues until cold weather when another period of inactivity occurs. In the spring of the third year, larval growth is completed and pupa

Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach Homoptera Aphididae

Although having a very wide host range, foxglove aphid is a pest principally of potato. In the northernmost potato-growing areas in eastern North America it is sometimes the dominant aphid species on this crop, but in other areas it is displaced by green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach. Foxglove aphid also occurs on a few other vegetables including celery, chervil, lettuce, pea, and tomato, and also on alsike, red, and white clover. In Asia, but not North America, it frequently colonizes soybean. Fruit crops that on occasion support foxglove aphid include apple, raspberry, and strawberry. It may be found on such flowers as calla lily, cineraria, Easter lily, foxglove, gladiolus, pansy, salvia, tulip, and violet. Among the numerous weeds known to support foxglove aphid are bittersweet, Solanum dulcamara buttercup, Ranunuculus spp. cinquefoil, Potentilla spp. common chickweed,...

Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius Lepidoptera Pyralidae

Diatraea Saccharalis

An inverse relationship between rainfall and borer abundance has been reported from both Louisiana and Puerto Rico. Heavy rainfall, and particularly winter rainfall resulting in flooding, depresses borer survival (Holloway et al., 1928). This is thought to result from prolonged emersion of stalks containing overwintering larvae in flood water. Also, young larvae living in the whorl of corn or sugarcane are quite tolerant of short-term emersion, but heavy rainfall while they are dispersing could lead to death because they are washed from the plants. In addition to rainfall, cold winter temperature is reported to depress larval survival rates in Louisiana.

Red Imported Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta Buren Hymenoptera Formicidae

Isolated infestations occur elsewhere periodically, including in California, and this species seems destined to occupy all of the southern half of the United States except for very arid areas. Red imported fire ant also has successfully invaded Puerto Rico. Activity decreases during cold weather, and this species seemed ill-adapted for cold-weather conditions, which was limiting northward spread. The northern limits now are southern Tennessee and southern Oklahoma. The origin of Solenopsis invicta is South America, where it is most abundant in southwestern Brazil and in Paraguay.

Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus Homoptera Aphididae

Bird cherry-oat aphid is susceptible to attack by many of the predators, parasitoids, and pathogens affecting other aphids. Lady beetles (Coleoptera Coccinellidae), green lacewings (Neurop-tera Chrysopidae), brown lacewings (Neuroptera Hemerobiidae), and flower flies (Diptera Syrphidae) are the most common predators. In Europe, and presumably in North America, eggs suffer high mortality rates during the winter months owing to cold weather in most northern locations and predators in most mild locations. In small grain crops grown in Idaho, Aphelinus varipes (Forester) (Hymenoptera Aphelinidae) Aphidius ervi Haliday, Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) and Praon sp. (all Hymenoptera Aphidiidae) were recovered from bird cherry-oat aphid, with A. varipes most abundant (Feng et al., 1992). Fungi have some significant effects on aphid populations, but this occurs mostly in irrigated fields. Precipitation, particularly heavy rainfall, also has...

Colias eurytheme Boisduval Lepidoptera Pieridae

The adults are observed from March-May until late November over most of the ranges of this species. The number of generations varies with latitude and elevation. In northern regions and in the Rocky Mountains, only two generations are reported annually. However, three to five generations occur over most of the United States, five to six are reported from southern California and Arizona, and seven generations occur in Louisiana. During mid-summer a complete life cycle can be completed in 30 days. In northern regions this species survives periods of cold weather in the pupal stage, though survival in northern latitudes is poor. In southern regions, alfalfa caterpillar tends to pass the cold periods in the larval stage.

Listroderes difficilis Germar Coleoptera Curculionidae

Tachinidae Larvae Hyalomyodes

First found in North America in 1922, vegetable weevil quickly spread from Mississippi, its point of introduction, to other southern states from South Carolina to California, and to Hawaii. Its distribution is limited to warm climates, and it is most common in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. However, vegetable weevil can withstand moderately cold weather, including brief periods of below-freezing temperature. Originally described from Brazil, vegetable weevil has also invaded Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Southern Green Stink Bug Nezara viridula Linnaeus Hemiptera Pentatomidae

The Body Parts Stink Bug

Where agriculture is practiced, but absent or rare from regions with cold winters. Its origin is probably eastern Africa, and was first observed in the western hemisphere in 1798. Distribution in North America is limited primarily to the southeastern United States Virginia to Florida in the east, to Ohio and Arkansas in the midwest, and to Texas in the southwest. However, it has become established in Hawaii (in 1961) and California (in 1986), and occasional specimens have been found elsewhere outside the generally infested southeast. Southern green stink bug is a strong flier, and its range is expanding in many parts of the world.

Melanoplus bivittatus Say Orthoptera Acrididae

Orthoptera Soil Diapause

Over most of its range, twostriped grasshopper displays one generation annually, with the egg stage overwintering. In Colorado, eggs begin to hatch in June, though hatching can occur over a four-to-six week period. Nymphs may be present until September, but adults appear beginning in July. Oviposition commences in August and continues until adults are killed by cold weather. At higher elevations in British Columbia, a two-year life cycle is reported (Beirne, 1972).

Two Cell Constructed Subsurface Flow Wetland For Graywater Or Blackwater

Subsurface Constructed Flow Wetland

Compared to open surface wetlands and are more commonly used for individual households. By keeping the water below the surface of the gravel medium, there is less chance of odors escaping, less human contact, less chance of mosquito breeding, and faster treatment of the water due to more of the water being exposed to the microbially populated gravel surfaces and plant roots. The subsurface water is also less inclined to freeze during cold weather.

Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius Orthoptera Acrididae

Agamermis Decaudata

Migratory grasshopper is greatly influenced by weather. Through most of its range longevity and reproduction are limited by shortage of warm weather. Thus, abnormally warm and dry periods of about three years stimulate increase in their numbers. Warm weather during spring and autumn is particularly important. Cool and cloudy weather in the spring inhibits feeding by young nymphs, and results in high mortality. Also, adults have the potential to be long-lived and highly fecund, but their reproductive effort is normally terminated prematurely by the onset of cold weather. When summers are hot or prolonged, development proceeds faster or longer, resulting in greater egg production. In southern areas grasshoppers are less limited by shortage of warm weather, but are more affected by shortages of food. Therefore, occurrence of precipitation early in the season to provide luxurious foliage, especially broadleaf weed vegetation, is an important prerequisite for population increase...

Plutella xylostella Linnaeus Lepidoptera Plutellidae


The adult is a small, slender, grayish-brown moth with pronounced antennae. It is about 6 mm long, and marked with a broad cream or light-brown band along the back. The band is sometimes constricted to form one or more light-colored diamonds on the back, which is the basis for the common name of this insect. When viewed from the side, the tips of the wings can be seen to turn upward slightly. Moths usually mate at dusk, immediately after emergence from the cocoon. Flight and oviposi-tion take place from dusk to midnight, and moths can be found feeding at blossoms on nectar. Adult males and females live about 12 and 16 days, respectively, and females deposit eggs for about 10 days. The moths are weak fliers, usually flying within 2 m of the ground, and not flying long distances. However, they are readily carried by the wind. The adult is the overwintering stage in temperate areas, but moths do not survive cold winters, as is found in most of Canada. They routinely re-invade...

Choosing the Right Vines for Your Garden

Before choosing your vines, consider whether your yard and climate can support hardy or tender vines. You can avoid disappointment by picking out a perennial vine that can survive winter in your climate (see Chapter 3 for hardiness zone info). You can certainly grow a vine that's even tougher (if you live in USDA Zone 6, for instance, you can have a vine rated to Zone 4) for extra insurance. But if you live in Zone 6 and choose a vine that's rated hardy only to Zone 8, it probably won't survive. Hardy really means cold-hardy, and it indicates a plant that can survive weather that goes down to freezing 32 F or below. Its foliage may fall off, but its roots remain safely viable under the cold soil and snow and ice. Just as with other perennial plants, hardy vines benefit from a little extra protection over the winter months, namely several inches of mulch over the root area. As for tender vines, unless your climate is quite mild (USDA Zone 9 or 10 or even 11 I'm talking parts of the...

Pansy Square Foot Gardening

The best word to describe pansy flowers is adorable 5 The little faces look up at you like they offer hope for a lovely spring after a cold winter and as a last hoorah of color in the fall. Even the flowers without the actual black blotches look like happy faces. Pansies come in so many colors and color combinations that its difficult to keep up with the changes and even more difficult to choose which ones to plant. They are easy to grow, as long as you remember that they like cool, moist conditions. When the weather gets hot and dry, plan to either discard or move your pansies. Tiny pansy-like flowers that crop up all over are Johnny-jump-ups, a self-sowing diminutive cousin to the larger pansy. Hybrids come in various colors, but usually revert back to the common purple and yellow color scheme over time. They are not weeds, and rarely dominate other plants, so enjoy their happy faces.

Tipula paludosa Meigen Diptera Tipulidae

Diptera Caudal Spiracles

Probably the most important natural enemy of European crane fly in North America is the larval parasitoid Siphona geniculata (De Geer) (Diptera Tachinidae), which was introduced from Europe. Several pathogens were identified in Europe or North America, including viruses, fungi, and protozoans, but they occur infrequently (Jackson and Campbell, 1975). Moles and birds are frequently cited as predators of leatherjackets, though there is no evidence that they can suppress populations. Weather seems to be more important than natural enemies, with survival or damage favored by cool, wet conditions in the spring and moist conditions in the summer, but negatively affected by cold winters.

How temperature affects plant growth

Scientific Walnut Growing

Average day-to-day temperatures play an important part in how your vegetables grow. Temperatures, both high and low, affect growth, flowering, pollination, and the development of fruits. If the temperature is too high or too low, leafy crops may be forced to flower prematurely without producing the desired edible foliage. This early flowering is called going to seed, and affects crops like cabbages and lettuce. If the night temperatures get too cool it may cause fruiting crops to drop their flowers reducing yields considerably peppers may react this way to cold weather. Generally, the ideal temperatures for vegetable plant growth are between 40 and 85 F. At warmer temperatures the plant's growth will increase, but this growth may not be sound structural growth. At lower temperatures the plant's growth will slow down or stop altogether.

Cheating the system Creating microclimates

1 Heat traps These structures help retain heat. Row covers, hot caps, and cold frames (see Figure 3-2) are well-known ways to trap heat, thus raising the immediate temperature and or protecting vulnerable plants from cold weather. You can purchase heat traps or build your own.

Plant cold and heat hardiness

The ability of a plant to survive is called its hardiness. Plant catalogs often use the term rather loosely to indicate whether you can expect a particular plant to live in a cold-winter climate, but hardiness really is a measure of a plant's ability to survive all the aspects of a particular climate. For a map of U.S. hardiness zones (as well as information about heat zones and sunlight zones), head to the later section Considering your region's climate. Duration of extreme cold Prolonged periods of extreme cold usually cause more damage than a single night of unusually cold temperatures. Snow Snow provides an insulating blanket that protects plant roots and stems from extreme cold. In areas that receive little snow, the soil temperature gets much colder than in areas with snow cover. (You can use a thick layer of loose mulch to mimic the insulating effect of snow.)

Stopping The Spoilers

Extreme cold and that means temperatures of 0 F or lower is what stops the growth of the microorganisms In or around food that can cause spoilage. Zero temperatures also slow down enzyme activity and oxidation, which are chemical changes affecting the color, flavor, and texture of food. Although cold doesn't kill off these spoilers the way heating at high temperatures for canning does, freezing halts their activity during the time the food Is stored.

Watering and humidity

Watering in the greenhouse is an essential activity about which there is much disagreement. Some plants prefer a constant moisture, while others are believed to prefer to become rather dry before being watered. In practice the majority will adapt fairly readily to any steady regime that does not keep them sodden or allow them to dry out enough to begin to wilt. It is, however, a golden rule when watering by hand either to give enough water to moisten all the soil in the pot or to refrain from watering at all. Clean rain water except in very large industrial towns) is likely to be belter for the more delicate pot plants and may be essential for lime-hating plants if the mains water is very alkaline. It is also an advantage if water can stand in the greenhouse before use in cold weather to take the chill off. However, tap water coming under pressure is highly charged with oxygen which is b n ficiai and static tanks easily become polluted. It is not always understood that air penetrates...

Combining different kinds of bulbs

Ah, combining different kinds of bulbs is the most fun of all A great coordinated burst of flowers is such a thrill to behold, especially after a long, cold winter. For maximum impact, you want a range of colors, sizes, shapes, heights, and bloom times. See Figure 8-7 for a mixed garden.

Direct Sowing In The Garden

Hydroponically Grown Vegetables

As a rule, hardy types that can withstand some cool weather are planted in the fall in southern and West Coast areas. In regions with cold winters, frost-hardv vegetables are planted in spring when the heavy frost is over and the soil can be worked or, for a fall crop, in midsum mer so they mature before the extremely cold weather arrives. Tender classes of vegetables should be planted when all danger of frost is over and the soil is warming. Examples of frost-hardy vegetables include spinach. peas, turnips, mustard, collards. and kale.

Introduction to herbs used in this pack

BASIL (Ocimum basiiicum) Widely used in Mediterranean cooking, this tender half hardy annual is susceptible to frost damage. Ideally it should be grown in a pot to be brought indoors during cold weather. Growing to a height of 30-60 cms, it has large shiny leaves and small white flowers that bloom in clusters. Once established, pick the tops out often as this will make the plant branch out and produce more leaves.

Soil Preparation

Several species of soil insects (wireworms and white grubs) feed on the roots and seeds of garden vegetables. Many of these pests are harbored on weeds or grasses in the garden before vegetables are planted. The garden should be dug or plowed in the fall and again in the spring, at least three weeks before planting. This practice not only eliminates weeds supporting these pests, but also exposes many pests to drying, cold weather and predators. Rotating crops to new locations in the garden also aids in reducing insects.

Carbon dioxide

In cold weather, with no ventilation, a minimum carbon dioxide concentration of 1000 vpm ( 1000ppm) is recommended during the day. In the summer, with ventilation, the application of supplemental carbon dioxide at a concentration up to 400 ppm has been found economically useful in other countries, but this technique is too new in Canada to support definite recommendation. Regions with a moderate (sea) climate, such as British Columbia, are more likely to benefit from carbon dioxide applied in the summer. But in regions with a continental climate, such as southwestern Ontario, the need to ventilate the greenhouse actively throughout the hot summer probably renders the practice uneconomical.

Keep Planting

Cold Weather Crops You must know the hardy crops, which can be planted in early, mid-, and late spring the tender crops that must wait until summer and those that can be planted in late summer for harvesting in the fall. Depending on your area of the country, estimate the length of your growing season and decide how far into the cold weather you'd like to (and can) garden.

One Exception

There is one time when you should sell your undersized vegetables and that is at the end of the growing season. You can protect and hold over any cool weather crops, but they grow very slowly in the cold weather. Most gardeners would rather harvest what they can and close up the garden for the winter.


This lovely landscape tree grows up to 25 feet tall and wide, with bright yellow, red, and orange fall foliage and gracefully drooping branches. Its orange fruit dangles from the ends of the limbs as they ripen. Although this tree can withstand winter temperatures to 0 degrees Fahrenheit, in colder regions it tends to break dormancy and begin growing before the cold weather has fully departed.

Frosthardy Crops

For some crops, you might want to consider installing a heating mat under the soil. For example, radishes the tops are quite hardy and with additional bottom heat and a heavy mulch once the plants are half-grown, you could extend their growing period into the cold weather. Again, weigh the cost of electricity against your anticipated profits. If you are considering a fall harvest, and you want to extend the season by two to eight weeks, you have to plan carefully when to plant and when to start providing protection. Of course, no one knows exactly when to expect the first frost or freeze, but by using your frost charts, you can do some fairly intelligent guesswork. Many crops will continue growing into the cold weather months, although slowly, if they're provided with the barest minimum of protection. These include spinach, Swiss chard, and many varieties of leaf lettuce. The root crops are most adaptable to a winter harvest, as long as you protect the ground from freezing while...

Mice and Voles

Both are small rodents, but the tail of a vole is much shorter than that of a mouse. Mice are fond of young seedlings, especially those that are growing in a warm house or greenhouse on a cold winter day they're omnivores, though, and eat almost anything. Voles, on the other hand, are almost exclusively herbivores and are the more troublesome pest for gardeners.


Self-rooted vines perform better than grafted vines in the Northwest's cold winters. Although grafted kiwifruit are available from many nurseries, planting kiwifruit on their own roots in areas where cold injury may occur is recommended. Severe cold spells can kill a grafted vine past the graft union, thus killing the vine. On cold-injured, self-rooted vines, suckers can be trained up from below the winter-killed portion.

Climate Concerns

Poorly drained soil reduces winter survival. During cold winters with little snow cover, unmulched strawberry plants often sustain winter injury. Although some grape cultivars such as Concord can withstand temperatures around -20 degrees F, vinifera-type grapevines survive weather this cold only if they are buried for the winter.

Freezer containers

Vegetable Garden Containers Bag

Preserving food by freezing is based on the principle that extreme cold (0 F) halts the activity of microorganisms, enzymes, oxidation, and other changes that cause food spoilage. When preserving foods by the heat treatment method of canning, containers must be hermetically sealed. Although that's not necessary for frozen storage, the packages you use must be airtight, as well as moisture vaporproof, odorless, tasteless, and greaseproof.


Hardy Fig Presidents Choice Pictures

In cold-winter regions fig shrubs reach 10 feet tall and spread that much or more. In warm regions trees reach 15 to 30 feet and spread wide and low, but you can easily cut them back or confine them. Figs can also be grown as container plants for use on a patio, allowing you to protect them in winter by moving the container to a garage or storage area.

Antichoke qlobe

Globe Artichoke Plant

The elegant, architectural leaves make the artichoke very decorative, but because it is tender and hates cold weather, it's not for al gardens. Artichokes, an ancient Roman delicacy, were introduced to France by Catherine de Medici. Later they were taken to Louisiana by the French colonists.

Reduced Spacing

The most commonly used plant protectors formerly available to home gardeners were buckets and old blankets. These still work, of course, but protective devices have evolved considerably. Plants can be covered not only to prevent damage during cold weather, but to modify climates and extend growing seasons.

Structural Materials

Hard (acrylic) plastic is another material that is now used extensively for greenhouses. Frequently, it is reinforced with strands of glass or nylon. Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) is stronger, easier to cut and fit, and less subject to breakage than ordinary glass. FRP can also be made resistant to ultraviolet light. The big disadvantage of plastic is that it turns very brittle in cold weather. polyethylene, mylar, lortex and others. The soft plastics are inexpensive, have good light transmission and are easy to work with. In cold weather, however, they become rigid and inflexible. A good insulation can be achieved when two layers of polyethylene are used with spacers in between. Blowers can also be used to separate and to support layers. How long soft plastic lasts depends on the quality of the material, its thickness, and the climactic conditions. You can replace it easily with soft plastic or rigid plastic sheets.

Preparing The Soil

The form of the nitrogen may also be of concern to some gardeners. Organic sources of nitrogen like blood meal, sewage sludge, and soybean meal are more slowly available to plants and less likely to burn than inorganic sources of nitrogen. The release of nitrogen from organic sources is dependent on weather conditions. In cold weather the release is slow. Under warm, moist conditions the release can be rapid. Inorganic sources of nitrogen are immediately available to plants. Cost should be the determining factor in deciding the kind of fertilizer to be used. Some kinds of organic as compared with inorganic fertilizer cost as much as ten times more per pound of actual nitrogen.


Pawpaws are a delicious fruit to grow in the home garden and a seedling tree will begin bearing fruit only 12 months after planting. Trees can grow to a height of five to six metres but they begin fruiting when the tree is approximately 120 cm high. Pawpaw is only slightly frost tolerant and is defoliated in cold weather. It prefers high temperatures, plenty of water, and a sweet soil (high pH). Pawpaws also need protection from strong winds. Pawpaws can be male, female or hermaphrodite (both male and female).

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