Miscellaneous

The easier species of Heliamphora to grow are H. heterodoxa, H. nutans, and H. minor.

PROPAGATION

Sexual Reproduction

The stigma is receptive to pollen for a few days immediately following the opening of the flower, while the anthers produce mature pollen about one week after the stigma has ceased to be receptive. Because of the timing of pollen maturation and stigma receptivity, the pollen from one flower cannot pollinate a pistil in the same flower. Therefore, two or more flowers must be mature at about the same time or the pollen from one flower must be stored for a few days until a stigma in another flower is receptive. There are no reports of anyone trying to store Heliamphora pollen for later use. It may well be that this pollen can be stored under refrigeration as can that of Sarracenia.

When the anthers are mature they will swell and split to release their pollen. Sometimes the anthers will swell and become yellowish green, indicating that pollen has formed but will not release the pollen. In this situation, try teasing the anthers with a pair of forceps or with a pin-point to open the cavity and release the pollen. If this fails, pull the anther apart to free the pollen. An alternative is to remove the anthers and allow them to dry for a day or two and then gently take them apart if drying does not induce dehiscence.

The oval-shaped seed, is sown on the medium surface and maintained in a humid environment out of direct sunlight and within a temperature range of 68-72°F (20-22°C). Germination will usually occur within three months. Growth of plants from seed is a slow process which may indicate that there are some special growing requirements that have not yet been ascertained.

Asexual Reproduction

Crown or rhizome division:

Heliamphora plants develop growing points on the rhizome or stem that will produce new plants. The new plants can be separated by cutting them apart from the mother plant. This is most successfully done during the spring or early summer. It is particularly important with this genus to avoid damaging the roots when making the separation of crowns and transplanting them. Plant the crown divisions in the medium and maintain a high humidity under strong light within a temperature range of 55-75°F (13-24°C).

Dionaea Germination

2-1. Dionaea muscipula plants. Red coloration of traps indicates good lighting conditions in most cases.

2-2. Dionaea muscipula leaf. Trigger hairs are arranged in a triangular pattern on the inner lobes of the trap. The margins of the trap are studded with bristles.

Dionaea Muscipula CuttingsDionaea Muscipula Cuttings

2-3. Dionaea muscipula leaf with captured insect. During the narrowing phase of capture, the lobes can become so tightly pressed together that the outline of the captured prey is visible.

2-4. Dionaea muscipula leaf section with plantlets. Leaf cuttings placed on damp medium, kept in bright light and in moist environmental conditions, produce buds that develop into plantlets.

2-4. Dionaea muscipula leaf section with plantlets. Leaf cuttings placed on damp medium, kept in bright light and in moist environmental conditions, produce buds that develop into plantlets.

Dionaea Muscipula Leaf
3-1. Sarracenia oreophila growing in natural habitat in southeastern United States.
Carnivorous Plants Natural HabitatDionaea Muscipula CuttingsDionaea Muscipula Cuttings

3-2. Sarracenia leucophylla leaf. Showing coloration of the leaf, fenestrations and secretion of nectar.

3-3. Sarracenia minor leaf. Fenestrations, translucent area lacking pigment, allow light to pass through. Insects on the rim of the pitcher, looking up, mistake the fenestrations for openings, fly into them, and drop to the bottom of the pitcher.

3-5. Sarracenia psittacina plants with flowers. Petals are maroon with cream apices.

Maroon Leaf Plant

3-4. Flower of Sarracenia purpurea ssp. purpurea f. heterophylla. This form of S. purpurea lacks the usual maroon-red coloration in the vegetative parts and in the flower.

3-6. Staminate flowers of Nepenthes. The flowers lack 3-7. In nature, the pitchers, filled petals, have four sepals and golden colored anthers. with rainwater and enzymes,

The sequence of flower opening is from the bottom of await prey. Nepenthes ampullaria.

the inflorescence toward the top. (Photo by Bill Hanna)

3-5. Sarracenia psittacina plants with flowers. Petals are maroon with cream apices.

3-9. Nepenthes gracilis lower pitcher. Bill Hanna)

3-9. Nepenthes gracilis lower pitcher. Bill Hanna)

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3-11. The jug-shaped pitchers of Cephalotus form a ring around the rosette of foliage leaves. The openings of the pitchers are oriented outward from the center of the plant.

Nepenthes Fang

3-10. Darlingtonia californica plant. Pitchers twist so that the opening, from which hangs a fang-like appendage, faces outward from the center of the plant. The translucent areas are fenestrations.

3-8. Nepenthes arnpullaria pitcher. The small ellipsoidal trap has a deep red collar and a small reflexed lid.

3-11. The jug-shaped pitchers of Cephalotus form a ring around the rosette of foliage leaves. The openings of the pitchers are oriented outward from the center of the plant.

3-10. Darlingtonia californica plant. Pitchers twist so that the opening, from which hangs a fang-like appendage, faces outward from the center of the plant. The translucent areas are fenestrations.

Jug Like Carnivorous Plants

3-12. Cephalotus flowers are borne in clusters.

3-13. Cephalotus seeds are borne individually within pubescent fruits that emerge from the flower.

3-14. Plant growing from a foliage leaf of Cephalotus.

3-15. Plant growing from a pitcher of Cephalotus.

3-12. Cephalotus flowers are borne in clusters.

3-14. Plant growing from a foliage leaf of Cephalotus.

3-13. Cephalotus seeds are borne individually within pubescent fruits that emerge from the flower.

3-15. Plant growing from a pitcher of Cephalotus.

4-2. Drosera paleacea plant with flowers. The plant produces layers of new leaves on top of the older ones.

Drosera Gigantea

4-6. Drosera gigantea tuber. Scales are visible on the tuber. New growth is emerging from the center.

Grovida Plants

Photo 4-10. Plants of Drosera binata var. binata produce erect, bisected leaf blades.

Pictures Erect Plants

Photo 4-10. Plants of Drosera binata var. binata produce erect, bisected leaf blades.

Grovida Plants

4-9. Drosera X Nagamoto winter bud

4-12. Drosera capensis leaves are erect with a linear leaf blade.

11. Drosera binata var. multifida leaf blade ith many divisions.

4-13. Drosera adelae plants.

4-14. Drosera petiolaris plants. Leaf color is pale due to heavily pubescent petioles.

4-12. Drosera capensis leaves are erect with a linear leaf blade.

Drosera Capensis Flower Stalk

4-14. Drosera petiolaris plants. Leaf color is pale due to heavily pubescent petioles.

Pointed Leaf Plants

4-16. Drosophyllum fruit with seeds.

4-18. Drosophyllum older plant with new growth developing in leaf axils.

4-17. Uncoiling of Drosophyllum leaves with red colored tentacles. Two flower buds are present.

4-16. Drosophyllum fruit with seeds.

4-15. Drosera prolifera plantlet and flower produced on the same scape.

4-18. Drosophyllum older plant with new growth developing in leaf axils.

4-17. Uncoiling of Drosophyllum leaves with red colored tentacles. Two flower buds are present.

Byblis Gigantea
4-19. Byblis gigantea plant with flower.

5-1. The corolla of Pinguicula flowers narrows to form a pointed spur. The palate is the pubescent structure on the lower lip of the corolla. Pinguicula vulgaris.

Flower Corolla

20. Byblis liniflora flower has 5 petals, 5 sepals and 5 stamens.

5-1. The corolla of Pinguicula flowers narrows to form a pointed spur. The palate is the pubescent structure on the lower lip of the corolla. Pinguicula vulgaris.

20. Byblis liniflora flower has 5 petals, 5 sepals and 5 stamens.

Natural Habitat Carnivorous Plants
5-3. Pinguicula caerulea plant growing in natural habitat.
Natural Habitat Carnivorous Plants

5-2. Pinguicula longifolia plant. Leaves tend to curl up during and after prey capture to form a shallow bowl which contains the digestive fluids and prevents loss of prey.

Pinguicula Moranensis

5-4. Pinguicula longifolia flower.

5-5. Pinguicula moranensis plant with flower.

5-2. Pinguicula longifolia plant. Leaves tend to curl up during and after prey capture to form a shallow bowl which contains the digestive fluids and prevents loss of prey.

5-4. Pinguicula longifolia flower.

5-5. Pinguicula moranensis plant with flower.

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