Carbohydrates Ebooks Catalog
As you would otherwise How long could you last without water or air We all have basic requirements necessary to maintain a healthy body. These include oxygen, water, carbohydrates, and other nutrients. Plants are no different. They require these things as well, and it is the job of the horticulturist to make sure that they get them. We get carbohydrates from eating plants. Plants, however, make their own carbohydrates with photosynthesis. Photosynthesis runs on solar energy, which is used to combine carbon dioxide and water into the sugar called glucose. It happens in the green-pigmented chloroplasts found in the parenchyma cells of leaves (Figure 4.1).
Plants obtain their main nutrient from the atmosphere, in the form of carbon dioxide (which is usually regarded as an inorganic chemical in spite of its carbon), which they photosynthesise with water into carbohydrates. In addition, they obtain dissolved nutrients from the soil, mainly as phosphates, nitrates, and other salts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium, as well as various trace elements. These nutrients are in the form of inorganic chemicals.
The strategy to control the composting processes by postponing the addition of some of the nutrient rich material was based on the hypothesis that efficient compost with high content of available N could be prepared by splitting the addition of the nutrient rich material during the composting process (Dresboll and Thorup-Kristensen, submitted A). The first addition at the initiation of the composting process should supply sufficient N to support the microbial turnover of the readily available carbohydrates. The remaining nutrient rich material should be added later in the process when the turnover of the wheat straw would already be proceeding. Decomposition of the newly added material would then result in less N immobilisation compared to the compost produced by a single addition at the beginning of the process (Dresboll and Thorup-Kristensen, submitted A). Dresboll and Thorup-Kristensen (submitted A) showed that when postponing the addition of some of the nutrient rich material, the...
Photosynthesis has been called the most important chemical reaction in nature. Without this process, no life on this planet would exist. The process is essentially a chemical one in which carbon dioxide combines with water to form a simple sugar. Photosynthesis requires light as an energy source and the presence of chlorophyll. It occurs only in living, chlorophyll-bearing cells that are exposed to light. The process can best be compared to a manufacturing process. The leaves are the factory, the palisade and mesophyll cells the rooms, and the chloroplasts the machines. Carbon dioxide, which comprises .03 percent of the air we breathe, and water are the raw materials. Sunlight or artificial light supplies the energy to run the machines. Simple sugars constitute the main manufactured product and oxygen is a by-product. The sieve tubes and the vessels are the transportation system, and special storage organs serve as warehouses. From the simple sugars complex carbohydrates, fats, and...
The pattern of physiological events in seed development follows identifiable sequences of gene expression. Proteins, carbohydrates and lipids build up in seeds during embryogenesis, resulting in increased dry mass. The accumulation phase is terminated by ovule abscission and marked by maximum dry mass. Over 20,000 distinct genes are expressed at any one time during embryogenesis (Goldberg et al., 1989), and there are a number of recognizable patterns. Expression continues after ovule abscission controlling the synthesis of storage compounds, preparation for desiccation, prevention of premature germination and the establishment of dormancy. It is suggested that a post-abscission programme of gene expression is completed before subsequent maximum seed vigour can be attained.
Substrate quality is defined by chemical composition of the decomposing material and has often been considered a critical factor in determining the rate of decay. Nitrogen as well as lignin content of plant material is important in controlling the rate of decomposition. Lignin is an interfering factor in the enzymatic degradation of cellulose and other carbohydrates as well as proteins. High initial levels of lignin may thus slow decomposition rates (Melillo et al., 1982). However, spatial distribution of the lignified cells is a key factor regulating decomposition, as mature lignified secondary walls can be degraded when anatomical factors, i.e. tissue organisation, have been eliminated (Wilson and Hatfield, 1997).
Green plants contain the organic pigment chlorophyll. When provided with light, carbon dioxide, water, and essential minerals they produce carbohydrates through a chemical process called photosynthesis mediated by the pigment chlorophyll. The light energy is converted into the chemical bond energy of a food molecule. The carbohydrate food molecules are utilized by the plant for cellular energy and as the basis for producing other molecules which are essential for the plant's growth and development. Usually the minerals and water are taken up by the root system and conveyed throughout the plant, including the sites of photosynthetic activity.
The majority of metabolic fluxes inside a plant cell center on the formation and utilization of sugars, the primary products of photosynthesis and their conversion into storage and structural carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose. Starch is the principle constituent of many of harvestable organs, such as tubers or grain. Besides its importance as a staple in human and animal diets, it is also used as a renewable raw material for a wide range of industrial applications (Jobling 2004). Starch is a relatively simple polymer composed of glucose molecules that are linked in two different forms. Amylose is an essentially linear polymer in which the glucose 184.108.40.206 Production of Novel Carbohydrates in Transgenic Plants In addition to attempts aiming at manipulating the contents and properties of endogenous carbohydrates, there have been several successful approaches for the production of novel carbohydrates in transgenic plants. Another recent example of the use of potato tubers as...
At ion) aids in mineral uptake (especially phosphorus), and the plant furnishes carbohydrates for use by the fungus. It has been estimated that 95 of all vascular plants have mycorrhizal. Although several different types of mycor-rhizae exist, the mycorrhizal fungi in the Zygomycota arc-known as vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizac. They produce highly branched structures called arbusculcs within the plant cell fig. 18.2). The cxchangc of nutrients occurs through these arbusculcs.
Corn, commonly known as maize outside the United States, apparently was domesticated in Mexico and perhaps is descended from a similar grain, teo-sinte. Corn originally was cultured because it was productive, a good source of carbohydrates and other nutrients, and the grain stored well. Sweet corn is a recent innovation that was first developed in the mid-1700s, but lacks the storage characteristics of the older types, or grain corn. Corn is grown for the seeds, which are clustered in a structure called the ear. Sweet corn is a popular vegetable, though canned corn is less popular than it once was due to the availability of frozen corn. The more recent availability of fresh corn that does not quickly lose its sweetness (supersweet cultivars) has increased demand for whole-ear corn. Sweet corn is cultured widely in North America. In the United States, Florida, California, New York, and Georgia lead in fresh sweet corn production, whereas Minnesota and Wisconsin lead in processed sweet...
Three elements, carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O), are supplied by air (in the form of carbon dioxide) and water. When the chlorophyll (green pigments) of plants are exposed to light, these three elements are combined in a process called photosynthesis to make carbohydrates, with a subsequent release of oxygen. The water is brought into the plant by root absorption from the soil system. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enters the plant through small leaf openings called stomata. The rate at which photosynthesis occurs is directly influenced by the water and nutritional status of the plant. Maximum rates are determined ultimately by the genetics of the plant.
The ingredients for cosmetic creams, lotions, powder, perfumes, lipstick or makeup come from a variety of sources, for example antioxidants, alcohol, oil and also polymers. Polymers serve in hair-setting products, as binders in skin creams and to keep sunscreens from washing off. One example is a-D-glucosylglycerol (a-GG), which is used as an anti-aging agent and moisture-regulating compound (Da Costa et al. 1998). a-GG can be produced by chemical as well as by enzymatic methods and was naturally found in microorganisms as a compatible solute for providing some protection against stresses due to high salt concentrations, heat and UV radiation. It is also useful as an alternative sweetener in food stuffs, because of its low caloric value. The microbial synthesis of a-GG is presently not a mature process, because it does not allow the production of a-GG as a bulk chemical. The achievable concentrations are very low and also the productivity of three days is not advantageous for...
In simple terms, when a plant is exposed to sunlight or daylight the rays of light are absorbed by chlorophyll, which is present in all green leaves, and this provides the source of energy which enables green plants to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. This process is known as photosynthesis, and the speed with which it proceeds is, to some extent, dependent upon the quantity and quality of the light to which the leaf is exposed. The rays of light which are most important to the process of photosynthesis are red and blue. The green rays are, of course, ail reflected, otherwise chlorophyll would not appear to be green to the human eye.
Another approach to induce male sterility in plants is the metabolic engineering of the carbohydrate supply. Carbohydrates are important for anther and pollen development. The extracellular invertase Nin88 mediates the phloem unloading of carbohydrates via an apoplastic pathway. Tissue-specific antisense repression of nin88 in tobacco causes male sterility because early stages of pollen development are blocked (Goetz et al. 2001). McConn and Browse (1996) demonstrated that Arabidopsis triple mutants that contained negligible levels of trienoic fatty acids, such as jasmonate, were male-sterile and produced no seed. In that case, the fertility could be restored through the exogenous application of jasmonate.
The food we cat provides us with energy, water, and molecules for growth, maintenance, and repair. The role of food as a source of energy was explored in Exercise A. In this exercise, we will examine the molecules needed for proper health. These can be classified as macronurrients, if needed in large amounts, or micronutricnts, if needed in small yet essential quantities. The macronutricnts are organic chemicals that includc carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These compounds, especially the carbohydrates and lipids, supply most of our energy. The macronutricnts are our source of building materials to make more living material molecules, cells, and tissues in our bodies. Carbohydrates can be grouped as simple sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharidcs) and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides). Simple sugars, such as glucose, fructose, or sucrose, are cheap sources ofcncigy. In our bodies, these can easily be oxidized by respiration to produce ATP. They arc also building blocks for...
Photosynthesis is a complex scries of reactions involving the capture of light energy, conversion to chemical energy, and finally the synthesis of carbohydrates. It is one of the main biosvnthetic processes by which energy and carbon enter die network of living organisms. A summary of the ultimate reactants and products of photosynthesis can be stated as
The complex chemical reactions which occur during the formation of carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide require the presence of chemicals called enzymes to accelerate the rate of reactions. Without these enzymes, little chemical activity would occur. Enzyme activity in living things increases with temperature from 0 C to 36 C, and ceases at 40 C. This pattern is mirrored by the effect of air temperature on the rate of photosynthesis. But here, the optimum temperature varies with plant species from 25 C to 36 C as optimum. It should be borne in mind that at very low light levels, the increase in photo-synthetic rate with increased temperature is only limited. This means that any input of heating into the growing situation during cold weather will be largely wasted if the light levels are low.
Yet if plants have too much nitrogen in their tissues, they do not harden properly. Hardening is a physiological process that cold-climate plants go through, which includes storing carbohydrates and proteins in ways that allow them to survive cold weather. Plants store energy collected from the sun through photosynthesis as carbohydrates. Those entering winter with few carbohydrates stored in their roots and buds are likely to grow poorly in the spring or be injured by cold temperatures. Proper pruning at the right time allows plants to maximize sun exposure and improve carbohydrate storage. Pruning too late in the season may cause a flush of growth and reduce a plant's hardiness. Mulching strawberries helps prevent significant winter injury, but mulching too early can be as detrimental as not mulching at all. Early mulching shades the leaves from sunlight and prevents the plant from accumulating sufficient carbohydrates. Strawberry plants should not be mulched until the temperature...
This third major nutrient is often referred to as potash or potassium oxide. It helps in the formation of carbohydrates and is necessary for photosynthesis. It also promotes early growth, improves stem strength and contributes to cold hardiness. It also improves the longevity, colour and flavour of fruit. Deficient plants are usually stunted and have poorly developed root systems. Leaves are usually spotted, curled or mottled and may even appear 'burnt' around the edges.
The food-conducting tissues of a plant, as opposed to the xylem, which conducts water. In general, the phloem carries carbohydrates downwards from the leaves, while the xylem carries water and minerals upwards from the roots. Phoenix dactylifera All living organisms can be divided into three groups called producers, reducers, and consumers. Producers are the only organisms that can convert solar energy into the sugars and starches (carbohydrates) on which all life is based. This process is called photosynthesis and it converts solar energy, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, giving off oxygen as a waste
The chemical processes that take place in any living organism. Anabolism is constructive metabolism, and is concerned with the synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, and other substances. Catabolism is destructive metabolism, and is concerned with the breakdown of chemical substances to produce energy. Metamorphosis
The water a vine loses through transpiration must be replaced by irrigation or rainfall. Transpiration occurs when leaves use carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis. On a warm summer day in California, mature, full-canopy kiwifruit vines can transpire 7,000 to 8,000 gallons of water per acre per day.
We investigated the N turnover in compost based on wheat straw and clover-grass hay. Postponing the addition of some of the nutrient rich material was expected to influence the microbial succession and thereby the mineralisation pattern. After the initial bacterial degradation of soluble carbohydrates, more recalcitrant compounds are decomposed by less N demanding fungi. Thus, when the additional clover-grass hay was added less immobilisation was anticipated and more mineralised N would be available. After 7 weeks of composting almost twice as much N was mineralised after the postponed addition. The delayed addition resulted in a second temperature peak and a decline in the pH. Despite the altered conditions no significant effect was observed on the weight loss or loss of C and N. In conclusion, compost processes can, in a simple way, be affected by delayed substrate application leading to a higher nutrient availability without altering other parameters significantly.
The inhaling or absorbing of air for the purpose of obtaining oxygen. Plants normally respire at night, absorbing oxygen through the stomata. This is in direct contrast to their behaviour during daylight when they absorb carbon dioxide and expel oxygen in order to photosynthesise and produce carbohydrates. Resting spore This is the bacterium that forms a symbiotic relationship in the root nodules of plants belonging to the family Leguminosae. The plant provides the bacterium with carbohydrates while the bacterium provides the plant with nitrates obtained by nitrogen fixation. The chemistry of this process remains a scientific
Total C losses resembled losses normally seen during decomposition of plant material (Bremer et al., 1991). It could have been expected that the mass and C losses would be lower in treatment 2 and 3 in experiment I with the delayed addition of nutrient rich material, since the decomposition was expected to proceed more slowly but steadily after the initial decomposition of the readily available carbohydrates. However, no decrease or even an increase of the mass and C loss was seen in treatment 2 and 3 compared to treatment 1. This could be explained by the higher microbial activity in treatment 2 and 3 when the supplementary clover-grass hay was added. The second peak of microbial activity in treatment 2 and 3 was detectable on the temperature curves, as temperature exceeded 70 C again when the extra clover-grass was added. Normally a small increase in temperature occurs when the compost is turned due to better aeration and humidity conditions. This was not observed in these...
If properly dried, most flower and vegetable seeds can be stored for two or three years at least, because they store their foods as carbohydrates. Fleshy seeds, however, store their foods as oils or fats and are, therefore, short-lived even under the best conditions do not expect them to survive for more than twelve months. It is probably best to store these seeds at the moisture content at which they are dispersed, so place them in a polythene bag in a refrigerator.
In light, photosynthesis occurs in the chioroplasts. This is a complex series of reactions in which waler supplied from the soil and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere are combined to form carbohydrates. In soluble form this elaborated food material is transported away from the leaf in the phloem.
Able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into protein. This is a symbiotic association in which the bacteria provide protein, and the plant provides carbohydrates. This is one of the reasons why pulses and fodder legumes are such valuable crops. It is possible to isolate the bacteria from these nodules, and culture them in order to inoculate the seed of leguminous crops. Commercial cultures of Rhizobium are known as legume inoculants. Some species of legume have Rhizobium strains in common, while other have their own special strains. It has become fashionable to use the plural name 'Rhizobia' but this usage should be discouraged. We might just as well refer to crocuses as 'croci'. Nitrogenous fertilisers
There is a reasonable presumption that the initial increase in nutrient concentration is caused by the high relative growth rate of young roots and shoots and high uptake by young roots. During growth, constituents such as lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) increase. Hara and Sonoda (1981) showed that in young cabbage, concentrations of total soluble carbohydrates and starch increased during early plant growth.
Water passes through the endodermis to the xylem tissue, which transports the water and dissolved minerals up to the stem and leaves. The arrangement of the xylem tissue varies between species, but often appears in transverse section as a star with varying numbers of 'arms'. Phloem tissue is responsible for transporting carbohydrates from the leaves as a food supply for the production of energy in the cortex.
The leaf is the main organ for photosynthesis in the plant, and its cells are organized in a way that provides maximum efficiency. The upper epidermis is transparent enough to allow the transmission of light into the lower leaf tissues. The sausage-shaped palisade mesophyll cells are packed together, pointing downwards, under the upper epidermis. The sub-cellular chloroplasts within them carry out the photosynthesis process. The absorption of light by chlorophyll occurs at one site and the energy is transferred to a second site within the chloroplast where it is used to build up carbohydrates, usually in the form of insoluble starch. The spongy mesophyll, below the palisade mesophyll, has a loose structure with many air spaces. These spaces allow for the two-way diffusion of gases. The carbon dioxide from the air is able to reach the palisade mesophyll and oxygen, the waste product from photosynthesis, leaves the leaf. The numerous stomata on the lower leaf surface are the openings to...
Organic chemicals made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, such as starch and sugars. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants as a result of photosynthesis, a process that uses chlorophyll and solar energy to combine water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, often in the proportion of one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Carbohydrates are a major source of dietary energy.
Green plants obtain their carbon from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and, during the process of photosynthesis, are able to fix the carbon, converting it into sugar. Some carbon is returned to the atmosphere by the green plants themselves during respiration, but most is incorporated into plant tissue as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc. The carbon incorporated into the plant structure is recycled and eventually released as carbon dioxide, as illustrated in Figure 18.4.
The actively growing plant is supplied with the necessary factors for photosynthesis and respiration to take place. Roots, leaves or flower stems removed from the plant for sale or planting will cease to photosynthesize, though respiration continues. Carbohydrates and other storage products, such as proteins and fats, continue to be broken down to release energy, but the plant reserves are depleted and dry weight reduced. A reduction in the respiration rate should therefore be considered for stored plant material, whether the period of storage is a few days, e.g. tomatoes and cut flowers, or several months, e.g. apples.
Cuttings are most likely to form roots if (i) they have plenty of leaf (ii) they are exposed to strong light (iii) they have a rooting medium that is biologically and nutritionally inert and (iv) they are kept in a 100 humidity. These conditions are met in a simple apparatus called a mist propagator. When the cuttings have plenty of leaf, and plenty of light, they can manufacture all the carbohydrates they need in order to grow roots. But they must be kept moist until they are able to produce enough root tissue to absorb water from the rooting medium. The rooting medium must be biologically and nutritionally inert to prevent rot-causing fungi and bacteria from attacking the cuttings.
Preparing the raised bed is the most important step in grow biointensive gardening. Proper soil structure and nutrients allow uninterrupted and healthy plant growth. Loose soil with good nutrients enables roots to penetrate the soil easily, and a steady stream of nutrients can flow into the stem and leaves. How different from the usual situation when a plant is transferred from a flat with loose soil and proper nutrients into a hastily prepared backyard plot or a chemically stimulated field. Not only does that plant suffer from the shock of being uprooted, it is also placed in an environment where it is more difficult to grow. The growth is interrupted, the roots have difficulty getting through the soil and obtaining food, and the plant develops more carbohydrates and less protein than usual. Insects like the carbohydrates. The plant becomes more susceptible to insect attack and ultimately to disease. A debilitating cycle has begun that often ends in the use of pesticides that kill...
Plant growth depends on a number of factors, two of which arc light and heat. In the simplest of terms, plants convert water and carbon dioxide into complex carbohydrates. In order to enable the plant to carry out this synthesis it has to be supplied with energy. The plant absorbs light through its leaves every day, and by a process known as photosynthesis converts it into energy.
Some soil microbes are opportunistic pathogens. They do not affect healthy plants, but if a plant is weakened by environmental conditions, the microbe will enter the plant and cause infection. Beneficial soil microbes make nutrients available to plants and in exchange get carbohydrates from the plants. Beneficial rhizo-sphere microbes are also responsible for the generation of compost from animal and plant matter. Earthworms are also helpful in the composting process and in the recycling of nutrients (Figure 5.1). Worms should not be introduced into ecosystems where they are not naturally found, however, because they can Mycorrhizal fungi form long hyphal filaments that stretch into the soil in search of nutrients they also form associations with plant roots. The fungi bring nutrients such as phosphorous to the plant in exchange for carbohydrates and may also protect the plant from fungal pathogens. Additionally, the hypha helps to bind the soil particles together and give the soil...
The availability of nutrients is important when plant-based compost is used as growing medium. However, mineralised nitrogen is generally only present in small amounts in compost due to immobilisation processes and nitrogen losses during the process. Thus, management of composting processes in order to obtain more mineralised nitrogen could improve the compost as a growing medium. In the first study, nitrogen mineralisation was managed by postponing the addition of part of the nutrient rich material by 3 weeks. One fourth of the nutrient rich material was added at the start, as this was expected to be sufficient to decompose the readily available carbohydrates of the structural straw material, without a large amount being immobilised. The remaining nutrient rich material was added after 3 weeks, when decomposition was expected to be dominated by microorganisms with a less N demanding metabolism degrading more recalcitrant carbohydrates, thus leading to more mineralised and less...
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