Broadleaves

Her Majesty Stationery Office Hmso

Mitchell forestry Commission LONDON HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE Crown copyright 1985 First published 1963 Reprinted with amendments 1975 Second edition 19S5 ISBN Oil 710039 0 ODC 176.1 033M lt t 0 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB 13a Castle Street, Edinburgh EH2 3AR Brazennose Street, Manchester M60 SAS Southey House. Wine Street. Bristol BS1 2BQ 258 Broad Street, Birmingham B1 2HE 80 Chichester Street Belfast BT1 4JY Government publications are also available trough...

Populus nigra Mica

Populus Nigra

Lombardy poplar is a particularly distinctive tree typically found in waterside surroundings, and is of great value in landscape planting. Everyone knows its remarkable narrow shape, soaring like a slender plume straight up from a narrow base. Each individual twig follows the upward trend of the main trunk so there are no large branches and the tree never forms a true crown. This habit of growth is called 'fastigiate,' and it is found as an occasional freak in many sorts of tree, Fastigiate...

Populus nigra var betulifolia

Populus Nigra Female Flower

Black poplar, one of our few native kinds, is an uncommon tree. It has been supplanted for commercial planting by the hybrid cultivars that are described on the following pages. Since poplars are not long-lived trees it is tending to vanish from the country scene. Black poplar seldom produces sucker shoots wild trees are only renewed by seed. This tree is called 'Black' only by way of contrast to the White and Grey kinds. Its bark is pale brown and more rugged than that of other poplars. As our...

Castanea sativa

Castanea Sativa Bonsai

The Romans introduced this remarkable Italian tree to Britain during their long spell of dominion and colonisation, from a.d.42 to a.d.410 their object was to raise the familiar nuts which were, in Italy, a staple food for their legionaries. But the British climate does not encourage a good chestnut harvest, and nearly all the nuts we eat today are imported. In the south of England, the chestnut ripens fertile seeds, and it has sprung up here and there in the woods, ever since Roman times. From...

Populus canescens

Populus Canescens

Grey poplar is thought to be a natural hybrid between the White poplar see page 45 and the aspen see page 56 but by well-established usage it carries a specific name. It can be found growing as if wild over most of southern England and Wales, and it is occasionally planted for its timber. Its vigour and hardihood, together with the soundness of its timber and freedom from disease, enable it to qualify for Forestry Commission planting grants see page 53 , The characters of Grey poplar lie midway...

Salix fragilis

Crack Willow Twig

This willow draws its odd name from a curious property of its twigs. If you bend them back they split off suddenly at the base, giving a sharp and clearly audible crack. This makes identification easy, but Crack willow can also be distinguished by the bright, smooth, orange-brown bark of the twigs, and its mid-green, slender leaves that lack the white down of the White willow. Crack willow forms a medium-sized tree that can often be found growing naturally along watersides. It is hardly ever...

Salix alba

Willows stand out from all other trees through features peculiar to their genus. Sallx, which gives its name to the family Salicaceae. But within this genus there are many species, varieties and hybrids, which baffle the experts, and the willows range in size from tall trees through shrubs to prostrate forms that creep over the surface of the ground Four common tree forms are described here. Willow buds have several scales but only one bud scale can be seen on the outer surface this is a useful...

Tilia x europaea

Tilia Europaea

The Common lime tree is believed to be a natural hybrid between two wild kinds that are rare in Britain, though frequent on the Continent One of these is the Broad-leaved lime, 7Ilia pktyphyl-los, and the other is the Small-leaved lime, T, cordata. Native limes can be found growing wild in a few rocky woods along the Welsh Borders, in the Lake District and in Yorkshire, but only in spots where their seedlings have escaped the teeth of sheep. Common lime is usually cultivated, being increased by...

Salix alba Coerulea

Salix Coerulea

Cricket-bat willow is a local variety of the White willow that probably arose as a wild tree in Essex, though today it can only be found in cultivation. It is always a female tree. The crown has a characteristic shape, a regular cone, and the foliage shows an attractive Silvery-blue colour. Willows are seldom raised from seed. Most kinds strike root readily from any stout twig pushed in the soil. Cricket-bat willow, the only kind grown commercially for timber today, is increased in this way....

Salix caprea

Goats Willow Picture

Goat willow is a familiar and widespread shrub found on the margins of ponds, lakes, streams, canals, rivers and damp woodlands all over the British Isles. It often owes its survival as a wild tree to the inaccessibility of its natural seedbeds. Its tiny wind-borne seeds can sprout on a soft bog where animals cannot tread, or on a shingle bank or overhanging rock face that animals cannot reach. When it springs up on bare earth or gravel elsewhere it is very apt to be cropped back by a sheep,...

Ulmus glabra

Ulmus Hollandica Twig

The elms are a very distinct genus of trees which includes a wide range of forms or varieties. Few experts agree about the correct ranking of many of these, as will be discussed later on page 97. but there is no dispute at all ovet the status and identification of the Wych elm. This is a native species found all over the British Isles, with old-established names in Gaelic - leamhan pronounced 'leveri and in Welsh - tlwyfan. Characters that it shares with all the elms include rounded winter...

Prunus avium

Sakura Flower Cross Section Petals

This lovely tree is unique in combining a glorious display of blossom with high value as useful timber. It is native as far north as the Scottish border, but only common as a wild tree amid the beech-woods of the south-eastern chalk downs. Many landowners have planted it in mixed woodlands on their private estates, more often for the beauty of its flowers than for any cash return from its wood. It is one of several ancestors of our cultivated orchard cherries, the others being smaller cherries...

Ulmus procera

Ulmus Procera

The English elm is the finest of several varied forms that, before the disastrous epidemic of Dutch elm disease in the 1970s, could be found across the lowland plains of southern England and the Midlands. As a group they are called 'Field elms' because they occur in hedgerows between fertile agricultural fields. The causes of the variability still puzzle the experts. One possibility is the natural spread of certain continental elms to south-east England while the land bridge with France still...

Juglans regia

Caterpillar Berry Twig

The Romans introduced the walnut, as a cultivated nut tree, from Asia Minor to Italy and western Europe generally, and possibly to Britain too. Its name is an Anglo-Saxon one. meaning 'foreign nut,' and the alternative form of welshnut' with the same meaning. Is still used in the West Country. Most walnuts you see are planted in orchards or gardens, but now and then birds drop nuts along the hedgerows, and self-sown trees spring up in odd places. In winter the walnut is fairly easily known by...

Sycamore

Sycamore Leaf Seed

Right male flower X3 . This tree is in every respect a typical maple, but we call it 'sycamore' because when it was first brought into England it was thought to be the 'sycomorus' or 'fig-mulberry' mentioned in the Bible. In Scodand it was thought to be a plane tree of the genus Platanus, and both tree and timber are still called 'plane' in that country. Sycamore is a very common forest tree in central Europe, and grows as a native no farther away than the outskirts of...

White Poplar

Strings Flowers

The poplar trees, of the genus Populus, comprise a very large number of species, nanve to Europe, Asia, and North America, and an even larger number of hybrids between them. Many of these are represented in the populetum, or collection of living poplars, maintained at the Forestry Commission's Research Station at Alice Holt, south-west of Farnham in Surrey. Though no single simple feature marks out the Populus genus, poplars are in practice easily known by a group of characters. Their twigs are...

Robinia pseudoacacia

Seeds Peas Pod

Winter twig of robinia life size showing typical angular growth. Single bud X5 near centre of large leaf scar, which almost hides it Typical paired spines. The robinia is named after Jean Robin, a French botanist who first described it in 1601, shortly before it was introduced to Europe from its home in the south-eastern states of North America. It is also called the 'locust tree' because early setders thought it might be the tree that nourished John the Baptist in the wilderness, though its...

Acer platanoides

Acer Campestre Veins

We call this tree the Norway maple because it was first introduced from Scandinavia, but it is also common throughout central Europe, including the foothills of the Alps. It gives us, each spring, something that no other timber tree can provide - a brave burst of blossom on bare leafless boughs. These flowers are bright greenish yellow in colour they are borne in upright clusters, as the flower picture shows, and have larger petals than is usual for a maple. A female flower is illustrated on...

Platanus x acerifolia

Platanus Hispanica Bud

The London plane so called because it is widely planted in the London streets and squares, has a curious ancestry. No planes are native to Britain, but early in the 17th century gardeners introduced the Oriental plane, Platanus orientahs, from Asia Minor, and about the same time the American plane, P. occidentalis, was brought in from the eastern states of North America. The American plane is not hardy in Britain the Oriental plane can be very large and is occasionally seen in gardens, and...

Ulmus x hollandica Vegeta

Ulmus Hollandica Twig

Fruits or Huntingdon elm, ripening as the leaf-buds burst in April. Each fruit has a large wing with a single, centrally-placed seed, as shown by the enlarged example on the right XlJ . Winter twig of Huntingdon elm. with medium-sized buds on zig-zag twigs life size . Below a single bud xS . This beautiful tree is one of the many regional forms of elm that puzzle thebotanists. but simply delight lovers of the English landscape. It is a hybrid between the Wych elm, Ulmus glabra, and the...

Sorbus aucuparia

Rowan Berries

Rowan is widely planted as an ornamental tree in gardens and along roadsides, because of its unfailing display of white blossom in May and scarlet berries in September. It is also called the Mountain ash, because of its ash-like compound leaf, though the two trees have no other features in common. Rowan belongs to the natural family Rosaceae. and the flowers show the structure typical of that group. Each individual blossom has five green sepals, five white petals, nectaries to attract bees, a...

Populus tremula

Green Vegetable Leaf

Several ieatures mark out this native poplar from all other kinds, its leaves are oval or almost round, with a curiously wavy edge see Figures 62 and 66 . They have very slender long stalks that are flattened sideways, and this allows them to tremble or quiver in the slightest breeze. The winter twigs are only slightly angular and the buds have a plump oval outline. Both male and female catkins look remarkably hairy - rather like hairy caterpillars - by reason of their very deeply divided...

Silver Birch

Germinating Birch Seedlings Botany

Three species of birch grow wild in the British Isles and northern Europe. One is the Silver birch, also called the Warty birch because of the little warts on its otherwise smooth twigs Hairy birch and Dwarf birch are described on pages 21-22. All the birches have white bark, which forms as their trunks and branches expand, and later becomes gnarled and rugged with dark patches. In die Silver birch it is particularly bright, with black diamond-shaped patches. The branches droop at the tips...

Carpinus betulus

Poison Fruits And Leaf Art Pictures

At first sight the hornbeam may be mistaken for the much commoner beech, which it resembles somewhat in form, bark, and leaf. Our drawings bring out the main points of difference for comparison, beech is illustrated in Figures 34-37. Hornbeam ieaves, shown in Figure 27. are simpte and oval like those of beech, but have distincdy toothed edges, and a much stronger pattern of parallel veins. The bark, though smooth and grey as In beech, has a remarkable network of smooth metallic-blue...

Ilex aquifolium

Sprig Holly Leaves

Holly is one of our few evergreen broadleaved trees. Its leaves are tough and leathery and are coated with wax which restricts loss of water. This may appear odd for a tree that grows in a damp climate, but in winter when the ground is frozen the holly's roots cannot obtain any water from the soil If water were then transpired from the leaves, as would happen with ordinary soft leaves, the holly would die of drought. This does not happen, but all the same holly grows far more vigorously in the...

Hybrid Black Poplar

Populus Nigra

Populus 'Regenerate' is one of the very large number of hybrid cultivars that have arisen through the deliberate or chance crossbreeding of different species. It is believed to have arisen about 1814 through the crossing of the European Black poplar, P. nigra see page 50 with another hybrid, P. 'Ser tina' see page 54 . It is distinguished from that cultivar by fine willow-like shoots a shapeless lower crown.of outward arching branches, retained after they wither the early flushing of green not...

Beech

Beech is one of our most distinctive and handsome trees, and also an important timber producer. It is very easy to recognise, for only one other tree, the hornbeam, is at all like it Beech buds are very long and slender, with pointed brown scales and sharp tips they are set alternately at the angles of the rather zig-zag twigs. These twigs are rather hairy, as our sketch shows. The bark of a beech tree, even when it has reached great age and size, is nearly always smooth, and it is a...

Quercus robur

Pedunculate oak is distinguished from the Sessile oak by its female flowers and acomsbeing set on long stalks, and also by its almost stalkless leaves. It is probably the commoner of our two native oaks, and may in fact be our commonest tree. A Forestry Commission census of trees and woods taken in 1947 showed that at that date, oaks occupied one third of the woodland area, while every third tree along the hedgerows was also an oak. This shows how well adapted the oaks are to the British...

Quercus cerris

Quercus Cerris

This handsome fast-growing tree is native to southern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean Zone. It was introduced to Britain about the year 1735 and has now become naturalised. There are many tall specimen trees in parks, and seedlings on waste ground or woodland fringes. Several distinct features mark it out from our native kind. The bark is rough, rougher than that of the common oaks, and deep in its fissures there are streaks of bright tangerine orange colour. The buds are surrounded by...

Black Italian Poplar

Quercus Male Flower Bract

This oddly-named tree is the oldest and best-known of the many hybrid cultivars. Its name of 'Ser tina' means 'late-leafing,' and it is the last of all our poplars to break bud The early leaves are a warm olive-brown in colour, and form a unique element in the late April scene. They turn to mid-green as they expand, and their shape is shown in Figure 66. See page 53 for other points of difference from Populus 'Regenerata'. This tree is called 'Black Italian' because it is believed to have...

Hairy Birch

Betula Pubescens Bracts

Hairy birch can be told apart from Silver birch by its downy twigs, which lack the little warts found on those of its smooth-twigged relation. Its bark, though white, is less shiny and is more apt to peel away in strips. On the whole it is a smaller tree, with more upright branches, and its general aspect is well shown in the view of a Highland birchwood Plate 10 . It is a common wild tree in the north and west of Britain, where it frequendy grows on damp, peaty moorlands. Its leaves have only...

Quercus rubra

Quercus Rubra Winter Bud

All the true oaks belong to the genus Quercus which is found in temperate zone forests al round the Northern Hemisphere - in Europe. Asia and America. Oaks have certain marked features that make recognition easy. Winter buds are alternately arranged, but towards the tip of the twigs they form distinct clusters as a result of this, oaks branch in an irregular pattern. The flowers are catkins, which open in May. Male catkins are long-stalked, and carry a succession of small flowers. Each separate...

Corylus avellana

Hazel brandies so often and so low down that it is more likely to rank as a bush than as a tree its typical form is shown in Plate 15. But it was very important at one time in British forestry because very extensive coppices, or copses, of hazel were cultivated in many districts to provide small poles. Their management was simple. Every 7 years or so the poles were cut then the stump sent up fresh shoots. One seventh of the wood was cut each year, so that there was always a fresh supply ready...

Alnus glutinosa

Alder is the first catkin-bearing tree to be considered in this booklet so let us look first at these remarkable structures. Figure 14 shows fertile catkins in March they open in early February, before the leaves appear, because in some years that is the best time for the wind to carry pollen from male to female flower. The long, dangling male catkins are seen on the left, with the short, club-shaped female catkins just above them the other structures are the winter buds from which leaves and...

Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus Excelsior

In winter the ash is very easily known by its hard black buds which are arranged in opposite pairs. The twigs are flattened at each joint where the buds are set and this flattening takes place alternately in two planes. The bark of ash is a characteristic pale grey smooth at first it becomes regularly ridged and furrowed as each stem grows stouter and older. Ash leaves Figure 40 are large and pinnateiy compound. This means that they consist of several separate leaflets, set in pairs along...

Quercus petraea

Quercus Petraea Bud

Two kinds of oak are native to Britain, but they may hybridise and many intermediate forms occur. The typical Sessile oak is distinguished by the fact that its female flowers, and the resulting acorns, are stalkless. and sit directly on the twigs. Its leaves, however. are distincdy stalked Figures 78 and 79 . In contrast, the Pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, bears its female flowers and acorns, singly or in groups, on definite stalks or peduncles. Its leaves, as shown in Figures 31 and 82, are...

Buxus sempervirens

Blueberries Engraving

Flowering branch of evergreen box in May life size . Lower left male flower X121-Lower right female flower X12 . Box is one of our few evergreen broadieaved trees. Its leaves, which are set in pairs along the twigs, are small and oval. Their upper surfaces are a glossy dark green, while the under surfaces are paler. The leaf texture is tough and leathery and altogether box is a very easy tree to identify by its leaf characters. These leaves are adapted to resist water loss in dry places, and...

Arbutus unedo

Arbutus Unedo

This beautiful and unusual tree can be found wild in the British Isles only in the west of Ireland, It grows plentifully around Killarney and more locally as far north as Lough Gill in County Sligo. Its main home is the Mediterranean region, and it is an evergreen adapted to a climate of mild wet winters and hot dry summers. Its dark green leathery leaves, with their waxy surface, enable it to restrict water loss. They are simple in design, shaped like a long oval with toothed edges, and are...