Raspberries

Raspberries are the hardiest of the cane berries, and perhaps the most worthwhile home garden crop for several reasons. Prices for the market fruit are high because care and labor are expensive, and market raspberries are subject to a long enough holding and handling period that fruit loses its finest flavor and may be bruised. Home garden fruit can be eaten at its peak.

The thing that makes a raspberry a raspberry is the fact that it pulls free of its core when you pick it. Other bramble fruits take the core with them.

The red raspberry is the most popular, but raspberries come in a variety of colors and plant forms—red, purple, yellow, and black fruits, with the red and yellow fruits growing either one or two crops on stiff canes and the purple and black fruits growing one crop on trailing canes. Because they are trailing, purples and blacks require trellising.

One-crop (single crop) raspberries produce fruit on canes that grew the previous year. Two-crop (everbearing) raspberries produce some fruit at the top of current-season canes in fall, and then produce a second crop on the rest of the cane the following year.

Raspberries are extremely hardy, so no special protection is needed except in the coldest mountain and plains climates. Where winter temperatures stay extremely low for long periods, and winds add to the chill, you should protect your plants in the following manner: Lay canes of the current season along the row or trellis, pinning portions that arch upward. Be careful not to snap them. Where mice are not likely to be a problem, cover the canes with straw or sawdust to a depth of several inches, and then cover the mulch with poultry netting to hold it in place. If winter mouse damage is probable, bury the canes under 2 inches of earth.

In spring uncover the canes before they begin to leaf out, just as the buds swell. If the buds break while still covered, they will be extremely tender to even light frost.

Unfortunately for southern gardeners, raspberries do poorly in much of the South. They need cold winters and a long, coo I spring. Everbearing plants don't like high heat.

California and Arizona gardeners are similarly unfortunate. Raspberries do not like spring and summer heat. Only the red varieties will grow and they are recommended only for coastal or mountain regions. The prime berry country on the Pacific Coast is western Washington around Puget Sound and the Willamette Valley of Oregon.

Raspberries are subject to all the same troubles as dewberries, but in the cold climates where raspberries grow-best you'll have less trouble. Any verticillium in the soil rules them out entirely, however. Because black raspberries are susceptible to virus diseases carried by red raspberries, they should be planted at least 700 feet from any reds. Virus-free stock may spare you this trouble.

If you want to enlarge a planting, it is important to know the difference between black and red raspberries. Blacks and purples arch their canes to the ground and root at the tips to form new plants. If you want more plants, leave a few canes unpruned and in late summer pin the tip to the

'Latham'

ground. Throw on a little soil if you like. Then dig and separate the new plant in spring.

Red raspberries send up root suckers. You can dig and replant them just before growth begins. Take a piece of root and cut back the top.

Red and Yellow One-Crop Varieties

In these varieties, all fruit is borne on laterals that sprout from the year-old canes. There is one crop per season, either in late spring or early summer. 'Amber' This is a yellow-berry that is an excellent dessert fruit. Good for the North. Origin: New York. 'Boyne' This berry excels where winters are cold and summers no more than warm. The red fruit has a strong, sweet-tart flavor. The moderately vigorous plant is subject to anthracnose. Origin: Manitoba, Canada.

  • Canby' These large, firm, midseason berries are good for freezing. The plants are semithornless and do best in light soils in the West and Northwest. Origin: Oregon.
  • Cuthbert' Once the leading commercial raspberry, and still unexcelled for dessert, canning, or freezing, this variety is difficult to pick, but this is not a big problem in the home garden. Good for the West. Locally available. Origin: New York. 'Fairview' These berries are large to fairly large and light red. The tall, branched canes are moderately hardy. Especially suited to western Washington and generally good for the West. Origin: Oregon. 'Hilton' This berry is the largest of all the reds, and of excellent quality. The plants are vigorous, productive, and hardy. Good for the North. Origin: New York. 'Latham' This early midseason variety is the standard eastern red raspberry. The berry is large, firm, and attractive, with a tart flavor. The plants are somewhat resistant to viral diseases. Good for the South and West. Widely available. Origin: Minnesota.
Raspberry Plant Diseases Washington
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Berys Nuts

'Heritage'

Oregon Shrubs With Red Berries
  • Royalty'
  • Heritage'
  • Meeker' This Pacific Northwest favorite bears firm, sweet, bright red berries. The strong plants are botrytis resistant. Origin: Washington. 'Pocahontas' This recent introduction has large, firm, medium red berries with a tart flavor. The plant is winter hardy and productive. Good for the South. Origin: southern United States.
  • Puyallup' These late-ripening large berries are somewhat soft, The plant does best in light soils in the Northwest, and is generally good for the West. Locally available. Origin: Washington. 'Sumner' This medium to large berry is firm and sweet, with intense flavor. Some strains crumble badly. The plants do well in heavy soil and are recommended for western Washington or along the coast to Monterey, California. Locally available. Origin: Washington.
  • Sunrise' This early variety offers firm, fine-textured fruit of good quality. The plant is hardy and very tolerant of an-thracnose, leaf spot, and cane blight. Good for the South. Origin: Maryland. 'Taylor' This variety offers mid- to late season crops of attractive, firm, red berries of excellent quality. The plants are vigorous and hardy. Good for the North. Locally available. Origin: New York. 'Willamette' The berries ripen in midseason and are large, round, firm, and good for freezing or canning. This is a vigorous, widely planted commercial variety. Good for the West. Origin: Oregon.

Red and Yellow Two-Crop Varieties

Two-crop raspberries produce a crop in fall at the end of new canes and another crop in early summer of the following year. In California the second crop may not survive the heat. In the Northwest these varieties may produce some fruit throughout the summer.

  • Royalty'
  • Amity' A bicoastal raspberry developed and popular in the Northwest, it is proving itself also in the Northeast. The dark red, highly flavored fruit is good fresh or canned. Ripens just ahead of 'Heritage'. Origin: Oregon. 'Cherokee' The berries are large and firm, and the plant is winter hardy and productive. Good for the South, particularly the piedmont area of Virginia. Origin: Arkansas. 'Durham' These berries have very good flavor. The plants are very hardy and productive, bearing a second crop early. Good for the North. Origin: New Hampshire. 'Fallgold' The fruit is a tawny golden color with very sweet flavor; except for color this variety is similar to 'Heritage', although its performance is poorer in warmer climates. Widely available. Origin: New Hampshire. 'Fallred' The berries are of fair quality but are often crumbly. The plants are nearly thornless. The first crop appears in spring. Good for the South and North. Widely available. Origin: New Hampshire.
  • Heritage' The medium-sized, firm fruit ripens in July and September. The vigorous, stiff-caned plants need little support. You can mow all the canes in late winter to get a single August crop and save pruning. Good anywhere. Origin: New York. 'Indian Summer' The fruit is large and of good quality. The first crop is light, the fall crop very late and moderately abundant. Good for all zones. Origin: New York. 'September' These medium to large berries are of good quality. The plant is vigorous and hardy—one of the best in the coldest regions. Good for the North and South. Origin: New York.
  • Southland' Recommended for farther south than any other, this berry was developed in North Carolina but is not recommended for the coastal plain. It has large fruit of fair quality. Good for the South. Origin: North Carolina.
Indian Berries And Nuts
Botanically, the strawberry "berry" is a receptacle. The "seeds" are the true fruit.

Purple Varieties

These raspberry plants are tall and stiff and bear a single crop on year-old canes. 'Amethyst' This early berry is of high quality. Good for the North. Origin: Iowa. 'Brandywine' This hybrid berry is of mixed ancestry; growth and fruit are closest to the purple types. Vigorous with 10-foot canes, it produces good crops of tart, red-purple berries especially fine for jam. Origin: New York. 'Clyde' This early berry is large, firm, dark purple, and of excellent quality. The plant is vigorous. Good for the North. Origin: New York. 'Royalty' This very vigorous purple-red hybrid similar to 'Brandywine' produces fruit that is large, sweet, good for eating fresh and for cooking and preserving. The plant is immune to the raspberry aphid, which carries a debilitating virus disease. Origin: New York.

'Sodus' This midseason berry is large, firm, and of good quality but tart. The plants are productive. Good for the North. Origin: New York.

Black (Blackcap) Varieties

Gardeners in the South and West should be aware that black raspberries are least able to tolerate mild climates. They need cold and do poorly in western Washington, although they are planted in the Willamette Valley and elsewhere in Oregon. They bear a single crop on year-old canes. 'Allen' This variety produces large, attractive berries on a vigorous and productive plant. Good for the North. Origin: New York. 'Black Hawk' This late variety bears large berries of good flavor and yield. Good for the North. Widely available. Origin: Iowa.

  • Bristol' These attractive, glossy black berries are large, firm, and of good quality. They must be fully ripe or you can't pick them. Good for the South and West. Widely available. Origin: New York.
  • Cumberland' This favored variety has large, firm berries of fine flavor. The plants are vigorous and productive. Good for the South and North. Widely available. Origin: Maryland.
  • Logan' ('New Logan') This variety produces heavy crops of large, glossy, good-quality berries. The plants hold up in drought and tolerate mosaic and other raspberry diseases. Good for the South and North. Origin: Illinois. 'Manteo' The fruit resembles 'Cumberland', but the plant survives farther south than any other. Good for the South. Locally available. Origin: North Carolina. 'Munger' The medium-sized fruit is of good quality. The plants are especially recommended for western Oregon. They are worth trying in western Washington, but may succumb to disease. Good for the West. Origin: Oregon.
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Responses

  • Domenico
    Where can i get berry seeds, blue, black, raspberry?
    8 years ago
  • samlad
    Where do raspberries grow?
    8 years ago
  • phillipp
    Where to plant raspberries?
    8 years ago
  • lelio
    What raspberry variety is more heat and drought tolerant heritage or caroline?
    7 years ago

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