Questions For Review And Discussion

  1. What arc the three tissue types in vascular plants? What are their primary functions?
  2. What is the function of vessel elements and tracheitis:
  3. What is the function of fibers and sclereids in plants?
  4. What arc the conducting cells in die phloem? How do they differ from die conducting cells in die xvlcm? »
  5. What cells regulate the opening and closing of the stomatal pore? How do diese cells differ from other cells in die epidermis?
  6. What are trichomcs?
  7. What parts of the plant supply economic fibers that are used in fabrics and cordage?
  8. What can be used as sources of pulp for paper production?
  9. Briefly describe die steps in papermaking.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Lcvctin, K., and K. McMahon. 1999. Plants and society, 2d cd. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Luoma, I. R. 1997. The magic of paper. National Geographie 191(3): 88-109.

Mause th, J D. 1988. Plant anatomy. Menlo Park (CA): Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co.

Simpson, B. B.. and M. Conner-Ogorzalv. 1995. Economic botany. Plants in our world. 2d cd. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Thompson. J. 1994. Cotton, king of fibers. National Geographie 185(6): 60-87.

ON THE WEB

Plant Tissues in Kimball's Biolog\ Pages, John Kimball http://www.ultranet.com/-jkimball/ BioIogyPages/P/PlantTissucs.html Plant Biology at OSU Lima, Plant Tissues and Cell Types http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/ cclltypc.html

Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Museum of Papcrmaking

http://www.ipst.edu/amp/

Wayne's Word, Plant Fibers: Fibers for Paper, Cordage, and Textiles

  • a href="http://daphne.palomar.edu/wayne/traug99.htm">http://daphne.palomar.edu/wayne/traug99.htm Economic Botany: Plants for People, J. R. Voos
  • a href="http://euphratcs.wpunj.edu/courses/bio352/">http://euphratcs.wpunj.edu/courses/bio352/ wcckl 3/WEEK13.HTM

OTHER ACTIVITIES

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) can provide details of leaf surfaces and trichomes not visible with a light microscope. These details can be seen by studying photographs < micrographs: taken with an SEM Examine micrographs of leaf surfaces. These may be available in lab or your instructor may have you research this topic in the library or on the Internet. (If an SEM is available in your biology department, you may have the opportunity to see the leaves directly at high magnification.) Observe the structure and branching pattern of any trichomes visible. Ix>ok for both glandular and nonglandular trichomes. Describe them. Also note the leaf surface. Do the trichomes and leaf surface appear the same as they do when viewed with the dissecting microscope? What differences can you see?

NAME DATE

LAB SECTION NUMBER

WORKSHEET 3-1 EXERCISE B: ECONOMIC FIBERS

Fabric/Fiber

Texture

Phloroglucinol-HCI Reaction

Ugnifled or Nonlignified

Cotton

Linen (flax)

Jute (burlap)

Manila hemp

Sisal

Tapa cloth

Other

What can you conclude about the presence of lignin and the texture of the resulting product?

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