Exercise B Edible Fleshy Fruits of Commerce

In this exercise, wc will emphasize fleshy fruits of com mcrcial value. Two of these fruit types are so important to humans that they arc given their own chapters later in this book. The carvopsis type of fruit is typical of the grains covered in Laboratory Topic 11. The legume is the fruit typical of the bean family and is introduced in Lab oratory Topic 12.

Materials Needed for Exercise B

Common fruits used as human food, depending on availability (e.g., apple, strawberry, grape, olive, walnut, cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, pineapple, green pepper, mango, papaya, avocado, coconut, orange, banana, or okra)

Procedure for Exercise B

A variety of fruits are available in lab for you to explore. For each fruit, take note of its shape, texture, taste, type, probable origin, and any other interesting facts. Record your findings in worksheet 7 2. Be sure to enjov a fruit salad when you arc through examining the fruits.

1. Green or bell pepper (Capsicum annuutn). Green peppers are examples of a simple fruit type callcd a berry. A berry is fleshy when mature, derived from a single ovary, and multisccdcd. Take a green pepper and cut it in half. What do you seer The inside is divided inro chambers. In the flower, each chamber was a carpel. The carpcls of peppers arc fused into a single ovary.

Can you sec the green bulges on the inner wall of the pepper? Each bulge is an individual cell. Nor maliy, it takes a microscope to see cells, yet these are large enough to sec with the unaided eye.

Where arc the seeds attached to the pepper? The tissue on the wall where the seeds are attached is callcd the placenta. If you enjoy the taste of "hot" peppers, the highest concentration of capsaicin is in die placenta. Laboratory Topic 14 provides an opportunity to test for yourself the "hotness" of different chili peppers, relatives of green peppers.

All members of Capsicum are native to the New World. In fact, they were unknown to Europeans before Columbus. In just the last five centuries, their popularity has spread to .Asia, Africa, and Europe. In fact, China grows ten times more chiles than the United States.

2. Tomato (Solanurn csculcntum, formerly Lycop-crsicon csculcntum ). Tomatoes arc also native to die New World. When the Europeans first encountered tomatoes, they thought they were poisonous or hallucinogenic. There is some truth to this belief sincc the leaves of the plant are toxic to livestock, and many other members of the same plant family are deadly. The former scientific name means "juicy wolf peach" and refers to the German belief that tomatoes could be used to evoke werewolves. Think of all the European cuisincs that now use tomatoes as the primary base. What would Italian pasta be without tomato sauce?

Like peppers, tomatoes are sometimes not considered fruits. To the botanist, a tomato is like a bell pepper and therefore a typical example of a berry. Like the pepper, a tomato is fleshy when mature, derived from a single ovary, and multisccdcd. Typically, we cat tomatoes when the seeds arc not quite ripe, but if you get a sun-ripened tomato, the seeds arc mature.

Cut a tomato into sections and notice where the seeds arc attached.

  1. Apple (Malus domestica). Although wild apples probably originated in western .Asia, apple trees spread across North America before humans arrived. Nevertheless, the edible apples of today come from Old World varieties. The phrase "as American as apple pic" may say more about our multicultural heritage than about the land we call home.
  2. Fruit derived primarily from tho ovary of a llov/er

Aggrognte fruit:

Fruit derived from several ovarios of a single (lower

Pineapple

Simple fruit: Fruit dorivod from one ovary of a singlo flowor

Simple Aggregate And Multiple Fruits

Pericarps fleshy at maturity

Accessory fruit:

Calyx or rocoptacle fused with ovary wall; can bo simple, aggregate, or multiple

II. Fruit derived mostly from (loral parts olhor than the ovary

Aggrognte fruit:

Fruit derived from several ovarios of a single (lower

Pome: Slmplo tloshy fruit derived from inferior ovary surroundod by a j Applo floshy hypanthlum (roceptacle)

Accessory aggregate: Most

of fniit derived from

recoptaclo; individual jiL >

ML „ .

ovaries form berrios, {

Raspberry

drupos, or achenes

tax

(o.g., strawberry or

blackborry)

Pericarps dry at maturity

Multiplo fruit: Fruit derived from a cluster of Bovoral ovarios from several flowors clustorod together on one stem

Pineapple

Pericarps fleshy at maturity

I. Fruit derived primarily from tho ovary of a llov/er

Simple fruit: Fruit dorivod from one ovary of a singlo flowor

Accessory fruit:

Calyx or rocoptacle fused with ovary wall; can bo simple, aggregate, or multiple

FIGURE 7.2 FLOWCHART OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF FRUIT TYPES.

Aggregate Fruit Flow Chart

Hesperidium: Partitions evident in cross soction; loathory and glandular exocarp separable from inner layors

Lemon

Pepo: No partitions ovidont In cross soction; leathery to woody exocarp Inseparablo from inner layors

Pericarps fleshy throughout

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Responses

  • melanie
    What are fruits that are fleshy derived primarily from ovary?
    8 years ago
  • edward
    Do bell peppers consist of a single ovary with multiple seeds?
    5 years ago

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